Wednesday, October 30, 2019

The Largest Health Insurance Firms in the US Essay

The Largest Health Insurance Firms in the US - Essay Example If ObamaCare succeeds in creating oligopolies, the insurance sector may experience some problems for example high operating costs and premiums, low-quality service and less innovation that would otherwise improve service provision. The merging of the firms would significantly reduce competition. In a non-oligopolistic market, insurance firms strive to gain competitive advantage over other fellow service providers. Providing quality service at affordable prices is an essential competitive advantage. Therefore, competition is necessary as it guarantees the proper performance of insurance as opposed to an oligopolistic market scenario.Conversely, the creation of oligopolies would also benefit clients and shareholders. If insurance firms come together to form a single commercial entity, the standardization of benefits that accrue to clients would be possible and premiums may be adequately controlled. As a result, mergers would attract more customers compared to independent insurance firm s. The interest of shareholders is to reduce overhead costs in administration and other expenses. Consolidation of the insurance industry would initiate a centralized administrative system that would control the firms under the oligopoly and reduce the subsequent administrative costs.In addition, ObamaCare advocates for extensive consolidation of hospitals and health care services. Large health care facilities are in a better position to provide quality services and maintain best practices by use of the vast resources that are available.

Monday, October 28, 2019

The Trait Approach to Leadership Essay Example for Free

The Trait Approach to Leadership Essay Which of the following statements is correct regarding the trait approach to leadership? good leaders are born, not made good leaders have the same set of identifiable traits leadership and management are terms for the same activity leadership ability cannot be explained by an individuals traits some common traits found in studies make finding leaders easy The trait approach to leadership is a theory, according to which all effective leaders must possess a set of the same principal personality traits [Answer B]. This approach is one of the oldest concepts in management theory, which was based on an early assumption that good leaders are born, not made [Answer A]. During the 1920s-1930s management specialists tried to specify a list of traits universal for all leaders, which would help to distinguish potentially effective leaders from other people. Nevertheless, in general, the attempts to create such a list can be considered unsuccessful. Numerous studies and researches on this subject were carried out, but the majority of the findings proved to be quite contradictory and inconsistent. Many researches, including Lombardo and McCall, Stogdill and others, identified certain sets of necessary personality traits that every successful leader must possess, but many specialists noticed that the effective leaders showed different personal qualities in different situations. However, this approach is taken into account in modern management theory. In particular, according to Samuel C. Certo and S. Trevis Certo, all successful leaders must: (1) be intelligent and intellectual; (2) have perfect communication skills and persuading abilities; (3) have a drive for achieving high socioeconomic status and attain the goals and objectives; (4) be emotionally stable and mature; (5) have good adaptive and participative skills; (6) be persistent and dependable, and so on (Certo Certo, 2005). References Certo, S. C. Certo, S. T. (2005, April). Modern Management. Tenth Edition. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Case Study Review - Reviving an Ancient Therapy to Manage Chronic Pain :: essays research papers

Title: Reviving an Ancient Therapy to Manage Chronic Pain Reference: Podiatry Today, December 2003, pg. 46-53 Author: Nicholas A Grumbine, DPM Rating: 4/5 Abstract Objective: This article was written to increase people’s awareness of leech therapy in healthcare to manage chronic pain. Case studies on were designed to determine whether leeching would improve chronic pain in a safe and effective manner. Background: Chronic pain results when there is delayed healing. Grumbine claims that chronic pain ‘produces a fear in the patient and a panicked feeling that the pain will return or increase’. Grumbine also explores other biological treatments like leech therapy, and the effects that medical leeches have on their patients. Usually, medications were used to control chronic pain, such as sleep medications and antidepressants. Now it has been observed that leeching prevents blood clotting and severe burning pain. The ingredients of leech saliva help stabilize cellular membranes and the overall well-being of the skin and body functions improve. As blood flow increases and improves circulation, the arteries, veins and capillaries dilate, and there is a reduction of oedema, shunting and congestion. Study Design: Case studies were designed to determine whether leeching procedures would affect patients with chronic pain, and by what amounts. These were patients aged from 13 to 96 that were defiant to usual tradition procedures. Five case studies were made. The case studies were performed on two elderly patients; one diagnosed with RSD , and the other patient suffering from burnings, oedema and hyperesthesia. Three other patients were also treated; a 16-year-old adolescent also with RSD and a severe hypertrophic scar, as well as a patient with Berger’s disease and a war veteran with ‘scrape metal wounds’. Results: Preoperatively, patients’ levels of pains were at an average of 8.6 out of 10. After leeching procedures, pains were significantly reduced to an average of 3.5 out of 10. Not only did the pain dramatically decrease, but there were dermatological signs of improvement. Leech therapy aided all of the patients that were case-studied. One of the elderly patients, a 53-year-old with RSD, had oedema reduced from her foot and her pain controlled with medication and fitted orthotics. The 16-year-old patient recovered well from her severe painful hypertrophic scar, after having 10 leeches ‘engorged 3 to 5 cc of blood’ and having 50 percent of the incision faded and 80 percent reduction of pain which allowed her to walk again ‘pain-free’. The third patient, a 52-year-old, had reduced swelling of her feet from severe burning, hyperesthesia and ‘forefoot oedema’ after the application of 12 leeches.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Charles Dickens Oliver Twist

A Study of Child Abuse Reflected in Oliver Twist by Charles Dickens. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of The Problem * Child abuse in general * DIKAITKAN DG AHLI * Child abuse in specific novel B. Research Problem * What kinds of child abuse are found in Oliver Twist in Charles Dikens? * How are the causes of child abuse in the novel? * Read, identification, dikutip, diuraikan CHAPTER II REVIEW of RELATED and THEORIES A. Literary appreciation * Sociology of literature. Difinisi tp dikutib. * Review of the related teoris (tinjauan pustaka), membahas tentang batasan-batasan dr judul yg dibuatB. Child abuse * Kinds of Child abuse * The causes of child abuse CHAPTER III DISCUSSION AND FINDING (MENJAWAB PERTANYAAN PADA B) Aplikasi. Hal dan ditulis 1 paragraf Ditulis Dari kutipan di atas oliver menglami child abused berupa †¦. yaitu diberi , dimsukkan dlm ruangan sempitmakan anjing This chapter, the writers would like to discuss the problem. They are kinds and causes of film. Rela ted to the novel. CHAPTER IV * Conclution * Reference CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION This chapter consists of two sub chapters. They are the background of the problem and research of the problem.The complete discussion can be seen below. A. The Background of the Problem What is child abuse? The writers said that the child abuse is the acts or treatments of the adult to the children that cause a harm to them or even the death, even the careless parents can be one of example of the child abuse. There are two effects that happened to child-abuse’s child. They are psychology and sociology. The parents who mock their children that is one of the example of psychological and it also can cause the children unconfident in the society.Child abuse is the physical, sexual or emotional mistreatment or neglect of a child or children. Child abuse can occur in a child's home, or in the organizations, schools or communities the child interacts with. There are four major categories of child abuse: neg lect, physical abuse, psychological or emotional abuse, and sexual abuse. (www. wikipedia. org). A broad definition of child abuse implies purposeful and serious injury inflicted upon a child by a caregiver. (John Mersch, MD, FAAP).The Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) defines child abuse and neglect as: Any recent act or failure to act on the part of a parent or caretaker, which results in death. From the main character in the novel of Oliver Twist also mengalami also experienced the child abused. For example: * At the workhouse when dinner, Oliver needs some more food but the master quickly hit Oliver with the ladle. * In the stone cellar Oliver was given some food by a servant girl. His food turned out to be what the dog had left that morning. * At the undertaker’s Noah moked Oliver about his mother.Oliver was angry and hit Noah. Noah screamed loudly; mrs. Sowerbury came and hit Oliver hard. etc Because of that the writers interested to write or analize the child abused that happened to the main character of Oliver Twist Novel by Charles Dikens. B. Research Problem * What kinds of child abuse are found in Oliver Twist in Charles Dikens? * How are the causes of child abuse in the novel? CHAPTER II This chapter reviews of the related theories of child abused. A. Literary appreciation There are four categories of child abused. They are physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse and neglect.First is physical abuse may involve hitting, shaking, throwing, poisoning, burning or scalding, drowning, suffocating or otherwise causing physical harm to a child. It may also be caused when a parent or carer fabricates symptoms of, or induces illness in a child. Second is emotional abuse. Emotional abuse is the persistent emotional ill treatment of a child such as to cause severe and persistent effects on the child? s emotional development, and may involve: * Conveying to a child that she or he is worthless, unloved, inadequate, or valued only inso far as she or he meets the needs of another person. Imposing developmentally inappropriate expectations e. g. interactions beyond the child? s developmental capability, overprotection, limitation of exploration and learning, preventing the child from participation in normal social interaction * Causing a child to feel frightened or in danger e. g. witnessing domestic violence, seeing or hearing the ill treatment of another * Exploitation or corruption of a child Some level of emotional abuse is involved in most types of ill treatment of children, though emotional abuse may occur alone.Third is sexual abused. Sexual abuse involves forcing or enticing a child to take part in sexual activities, including prostitution, whether or not she or he is aware of what is happening. Activities may involve physical contact, including penetrative and non-penetrative acts. ?Penetrative acts? include ? rape? (forced penetration of vagina, anus or mouth with a penis) and ? assault by penetration? (se xual penetration of vagina or anus of a child with a part of the body or an object). Sexual activities may also include non-contact activities, e. g. nvolving a child in looking at / production of abusive images, watching sexual activities or encouraging her/him to behave in sexually inappropriate ways. It may include use of photos, pictures, cartoons, literature or sound recordings via internet, books, magazines, audio cassettes, tapes or CDs. Children under sixteen years of age cannot lawfully consent to sexual intercourse, although in practice may be involved in sexual contact to which, as individuals, they have agreed. A child of under thirteen is considered in law incapable of providing consent.Fourt is neglect. Neglect involves the persistent failure to meet a child? s basic physical and/or psychological needs, likely to result in the serious impairment of the child? s health and development. Neglect may occur during pregnancy as a result of maternal substance misuse. Once the child is born, neglect may involve failure to: * Provide adequate food, clothing or shelter (including exclusion from home or abandonment) * Protect from physical and emotional harm or danger * Meet or respond to basic emotional needs Ensure adequate supervision including the use of adequate care-takers * Ensure access to appropriate medical care or treatment * Ensure that her/his educational needs are met * Ensure her / his opportunities for intellectual stimulation are met Physical abuse Physical abuse involves physical aggression directed at a child by an adult. Most nations with child-abuse laws consider the deliberate infliction of serious injuries, or actions that place the child at obvious risk of serious injury or death, to be illegal. Beyond this, there is considerable variation.The distinction between child discipline and abuse is often poorly defined. Cultural norms about what constitutes abuse vary widely: among professionals as well as the wider public, people do not a gree on what behaviors constitute abuse. [6] Some professionals claim that cultural norms that sanction physical punishment are one of the causes of child abuse, and have undertaken campaigns to redefine such norms. [7][8][9] Sexual abuse Main articles: Child sexual abuse and child-on-child sexual abuse Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a form of child abuse in which an adult or older adolescent abuses a child for sexual stimulation. 10][11] Forms of CSA include asking or pressuring a child to engage in sexual activities (regardless of the outcome), indecent exposure of the genitals to a child, displaying pornography to a child, actual sexual contact with a child, physical contact with the child's genitals, viewing of the child's genitalia without physical contact, or using a child to produce child pornography. [10][12][13] Selling the sexual services of children may be viewed and treated as child abuse with services offered to the child rather than simple incarceration. 14] Effects of ch ild sexual abuse include guilt and self-blame, flashbacks, nightmares, insomnia, fear of things associated with the abuse (including objects, smells, places, doctor's visits, etc. ), self-esteem issues, sexual dysfunction, chronic pain, addiction, self-injury, suicidal ideation, somatic complaints, depression,[15] post-traumatic stress disorder,[16] anxiety,[17] other mental illnesses (including borderline personality disorder[18] and dissociative identity disorder,[18] propensity to re-victimization in adulthood,[19] bulimia nervosa,[20] physical injury to the child, among other problems. 21] Approximately 15% to 25% of women and 5% to 15% of men were sexually abused when they were children. [22][23][24][25][26] Most sexual abuse offenders are acquainted with their victims; approximately 30% are relatives of the child, most often brothers, fathers, mothers, uncles or cousins; around 60% are other acquaintances such as friends of the family, babysitters, or neighbours; strangers are the offenders in approximately 10% of child sexual abuse cases. [22] In over one-third of cases, the perpetrator is also a minor. 27] Psychological/emotional abuse Main article: Emotional abuse Out of all the possible forms of abuse, emotional abuse is the hardest to define. It could include name-calling, ridicule, degradation, destruction of personal belongings, torture or killing of a pet, excessive criticism, inappropriate or excessive demands, withholding communication, and routine labeling or humiliation. [28] Victims of emotional abuse may react by distancing themselves from the abuser, internalizing the abusive words, or fighting back by insulting the abuser.Emotional abuse can result in abnormal or disrupted attachment development, a tendency for victims to blame themselves (self-blame) for the abuse, learned helplessness, and overly passive behavior. [28] Neglect Main article: Child neglect The continuous refusal of a child's basic needs is considered chronic neglect. [29] There are many effects of child neglect, such as children not being able to interact with other children around them. C. Research Problem The writers would like to formulate two problems their are

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

International Development: Theories of Modernization, Dependency, Globalization

Minhchau Truong ID 125 Prof. Kevin Maclean Midterm Exam Citation Black, Maggie. The No-Nonsense Guide to International Development. (London: New Internationalist Publications Ltd, 2007). Naim, Moises. Illicit: How Smugglers, Traffickers, and Copycats are Hijacking the Global Economy. (New York: Anchor Books, 2005). Reding, Nick. Methland: The Death and Life of an American Small Town. (New York: Bloomsbury, 2009). Thurow, Roger and Scott Kilman. Enough: Why the World’s Poorest Starve in an Age of Plenty. New York: Perseus Books, 2009). 1. ) Modernization Theory was used to justify the process of decolonization and intervention by the United States, which had the ulterior motive of gaining access to new markets and thus boosting the national economy. The U. S. separated this theory from Cold War ideologies with the distinguishing feature that it emphasized GNP and technical measures. The theory is ethnocentric and is posited in the belief that there is a ceaseless struggle again st scarcity and that underdeveloped nations must overcome this natural state. The role and ability of the developed state was framed by the teleological doctrine that began with preconditions to â€Å"take-off†, which was recognition that economic progress was necessary to move from â€Å"tradition† to â€Å"modernity† to the final â€Å"take-off†, to the â€Å"drive to maturity† (which was expected to be completed in 1-2 generations), to the â€Å"age of high-mass consumption† (similar to the historical patterns of the U. S. ). The strengths of Modernization theory included its organized capitalism, integration into the world economy, and outlook of economic expansion. These changes were to be achieved through institutions and a shift from earlier colonial hierarchy and integration into the United Nations family (a de jure equality). However, the weaknesses overpower benefits. The theory naturalizes â€Å"underdevelopment† as something that can be changed easily, and discounts implicit historical, geographical, sociological circumstances or specific constraints. Furthermore, it disregards underdeveloped countries by trivializing conditions by labeling it as the â€Å"global norm†. Economics is foremost on the agenda, rather than politics, because capital accumulation for developed states- not actual welfare of the concerned state- is the main objective. The theory displaces the more correct principle of the right to self-definition. The linear growth implied by the theory can only be achieved by mass consumption, competition, individualism. Essentially, modernization theory is an ahistorical narrative imposed by ethnocentric developed states that could not possibly relate to their underdeveloped states. Dependency Theory sees the historical relations of inequality, the unequal relationships developed between industrialized countries versus underdeveloped. Theoretically, the problem is explained as: economic growth in advanced industrialized countries did not lead to a growth in poorer countries. Dependency theory acknowledges that modernization theory directly contradicted neo-classical economic theory- the Pareto optimal, that economic growth was beneficial to all even if benefits not equally shared, this was not evident in the relationship between industrialized nations and unindustrialized nations. The strengths of dependency theory included that is accounted for real history as opposed to modernization theory, which was a philosophy of history. It saw states as a global structure, and saw inequalities as a problem rather than a way to promote competition and equalizations. There were realistic expectations, unacknowledged that imposition of â€Å"development† was actually an act of exclusion. What was preferred was a more natural, predestined process of inclusion. Economically, dependency accurately determined the outcomes of modernization: poor countries exported primary commodities to rich countries, which the rich countries used to then manufacture products out of them, therefore adding value to the overall product during the manufacture, which they then export back to poorer countries. In the end, these poorer countries would never earn enough from exports to pay for their imports due to the added value. However, the weaknesses are substantial, and expose the logical fallacies dependency theory is built upon. It is more of a critique than an independent theory for improvement, there is some insight but not much. With dependency theory, there is little to no success from its initial conclusions. Its avocation for protectionism and trade tariffs was not enough for developing countries to emerge economically. The suggestion of Import Substitution Industrialization (ISI) was also not enough because the economic theory required implementation of incubation of domestic infant industries that many times were difficult to start-up without the help local governments. Various avenues, tariffs, import quotas and subsidized government loans were many times not possible due to absence of political will or ability. The development of production channels were often times distorted or disrupted due to external forces or inability of states to handle. Here, an imperialist mindset is once again imposed onto undeveloped nations, Transnational corporations (TNCs) stationed in undeveloped nations impose standards and expectations, which are most pronounced in their monopolistic practices and assertion of political and economic agenda onto the concerned country. In addition, many times, when a country did specialize in their production of goods, their own internal markets were not large enough to support the economies of scale. People either didn’t have enough money or had a preference for outside foreign goods. Essentially, relations cannot simply be fixed, there is a much more dynamic complexity. Peripheral states cannot possibly â€Å"just catch up†, they did not ask to be placed in their respective positions within the world economy, they were forced by dominate states (developed countries like the U. S. – they were labeled as â€Å"under-developed† when their â€Å"inequalities† were identified by us, pitted against our own standards- unfairly so. Advanced industrial economies can’t serve as models for developing ones, their success was contingent upon highly exploitive colonial relationships (with the very underdeveloped countries they are trying to aid now, which is ironic) these relationships cannot be created. Implications of dependency include: Alternative use of resources preferable to current patterns of use- they don’t want our methodologies. The practice of diverted resources are maintained by dominant states and power elites within dependant states, this fixes nothing, rather, it further complicates relations between concerned â€Å"underdeveloped† country and those who are in control of them. There are overlapping interests, value and culture assumptions, assumption that this dependency is voluntary, elites believe key to economic development is to follow liberal economic doctrine, this is essentially hegemony. Economic growth does not equal economic development, more attention needs to be paid o social indicators- life expectancy, literacy, infant mortality, education, emergence of human index. Greater integration is not the answer, equality cannot be achieved World System Theory was first was labeled as â€Å"Modern World system. † An integration through market rather than political center, the state was an economic tool for capital accumulation by certain classes. The world was comprised of mini-system s, which made up world empires, which made up a capitalist world economy. This world-wide perspective with historical depth of centuries was necessary to understanding the present. Single tripartite division of labor notion induced that countries do not have economies but are part of a world economy. The core zones benefited from monopolies, while the semi-peripheries were dominated by the core zones, and the peripheries themselves were developing countries dominated by both core and semi-periphery countries. Labor-intensive production took place in periphery states as a means to former states’ economic deliverance. Periphery states’ subordinate status is due to a number of factors including, technological conditions and the difference in strength of states on the global market scale, thus the differential flow of surplus to core results in unequal exchange. However, the strengths of the theory lies in the assumption that capital accumulation on a global scale will in turn, benefit developing countries. The weakness of the theory is how it is debilitating regarding focus towards strong and weak states. The theory concentrates on the historical evidence of failure rather than success, and discounts the class structure and economic growth, among other important elements, within states. The zero-sum economic narrative is limited, grounded in ahistorical euro-centrism. The theory polarizes periphery states by keeping them down, with the ideology of ruling groups presiding over them. Conclusively, the theory is a capitalist structure that operates on the endless accumulation of capital rather than the well-being of particular periphery states. The contemporary forms of â€Å"globalization† make these three theories of state-led development irrelevant and require us to rethink some of the assumptions upon which they were based for many reasons. Firstly, the increased but selective flow of financial capita between major metropoles exemplified in Illicit Trade shows the unrecognized potential of â€Å"dependant† states, how they are actually able to thrive despite conditions (of scarcity, etc. ). In Illicit Trade, the examples of countries thriving on the wholesale of contraband commodities, or transshipment havens (Suriname, Nauru) shows how the differentiated labor markets within and across national borders have essentially been empowered, there is no definitive route to economic growth, illicit trade just so happens to be this new growth- for the good or the bad. The increased, but uneven integration of consumer markets worldwide proves the irrelevancy of modernization and dependency theory, as there was no prerequisite in this integration that was previously said necessary in the former theories. The Governments were a emphasized factor in the theories for growth and development, however, in this context of globalization and illicit trade, the private facilitation of capitalist penetration from countryside to countryside has actually been the impetus. The new, emerging aspects of illicit trade is that it’s not just a crime, or an underground phenomenon, but it could fashion economic possibilities. There is now an intrinsic connection to political structures, emerging Governments. High-profile trafficking organizations now have a heavy influence and control over governments. The dependency on illicit trade has pervaded into the basic exchange of commodities, thus the interaction of people, thus it is now well stitched into the fabric of existence, it has constituted cultures. The entire disarraying manifestations of illicit trade has now coalesced, it is now a part of history, it has become facet of life. 2. ) The manufacture, distribution, and sale of methamphetamine rose largely out of the recent developments of Globalization and free trade, long term trends in agricultural and pharmaceutical companies, and the action of government lobbyists. These basic components make up for what Reding describes in Methland, as the meth epidemic of today. Reding’s best illustration is his microcosmic case example of Lori Kaye Arnold, starting from the origins of her entrepreneurial endeavors to her quick succession of wealth and monopoly control over meth. Lori’s decision to drop out of high school and house herself through her meth delivery service exemplifies the opportunities of income that are available to small rural communities subjugated to lack of employment. Due to this facet, production of meth transferred to underground population sites of small town meth addicts (like Lori) and outlaw chemists. Rural economies of small towns like Oelwein were gradually taken over by profiteering industries. The turning over of Iowa Ham to Gillette to Iowa Beef Products (IBP) to Tyson, resulted in a shrinkage of worker demand and stationary wages. In January 2006, Tyson officially closed the plant , â€Å"the initial workforce had been reduced from nearly two thousand people to ninety-nine, a remarkable, devastating loss of revenue in a town of only six thousand† (Reding 2009, 53). Ottumwa, a town in southeast Iowa endured the same hardship that crept into Oelwein. The town was eventually also starved of tax revenue and disposable income from the shut-down of the town’s railroad, air force base, and the sale of its meat-processing plant to Cargill. And like Oelwein, â€Å"Methamphetamine moved into the new economic gap,† and helped to sustain not just the market in Oelwein, â€Å"but also in towns all over Iowa, Missouri, Nebraska, Kansas, and the Dakotas† (Reding 2009, 60). It was Lori’s success in Ottumwa that made her decide to expand her horizons in meth distribution. Lori went straight to her middleman in Des Moines, and continued in her ambitions to her supplier in Long Beach, California. Meanwhile, Lori’s own enterprise fueled the franchises of people like Jeffrey William Hayes and Steve Jelinek, such is the lucrative nature of the meth business. Lori’s eventual partnership with the Mexican Mafia, the Ameczua brothers ushers in powerful forces that make up a web of interdependence, all revealing the scale of hold meth has on not just small towners like Lori, but also our local and global economy. The U. S. mmigration policy could not prevent the influx of Mexican immigrants that came, who were now seen as excellent transportation devices for large quantities of the meth throughout California and the west. Midwestern residents who just lost their jobs were now headed for booming labor-markets in Los Angeles and San Diego, becoming ideal social and business connections for drug cartels like the Amezcua brothers. These factors enable d drug cartels to expand their business prospects, but also provided a source of income for those involved, a major motivator. Additionally there was the appeal of the drug itself. Meth was powerful; a vocational drug rather than a recreational one, it was perfect for labor-intensive occupations, thus effectively converting mere middlemen or workers into consumers. The cost-effective narcotic had been around since industrialization, and its cheap convenience was made all the more apparent when rural economies collapsed and people felt like they needed the drug in order to survive. For all these reasons, meth was a sustainable business in its inception that allowed it to go unnoticed. The precursor to meth production (ephedrine, and soon, pseudoephedrine) was made readily available by pharmaceutical companies and engineers in legal, enormous, and unmonitored supplies. The high-demand for these precursors provided a huge incentive for pharmaceutical companies to prevent purchasing restrictions that the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) was trying to enforce. When the DEA discovered bulk shipments of ephedrine being redirected to the Amezcua brothers, there was also a realization of a â€Å"narrow processing window† of ephedrine that was perfect for the meth trade. Cooperation from the nine processing factories in India, China, Germany, Czech Republic and pharmaceutical companies was the only thing needed. Despite DEA efforts, pharmaceutical industry lobbyists blocked every single anti-meth bill with help of key senators and members of congress. The relentless battle of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine prohibition was most often times won by powerful companies and corporations, thus the manufacture, distribution, and sale of meth proceeded. Through the lens of Dependency theory, rural economies like the town of Oelwein would be encouraged to discontinue the market of meth because it has become a dependant source of revenue that creates unequal relationships between powerful entities (such as drug cartels, pharmaceutical companies, agricultural based corporations) and small town communities, poor job-seeking immigrants and aspiring meth cooks. The manufacturing of meth is not sustainable and does not result in equal or greater proportions of benefit for those dependant on the business, rather, it enslaves them. Thus, dependency theory is good in its avocation of meth abolishment, but it does not provide other revenue generating substitutes or a way into economic stability. Dependency theory stresses independence while keeping up with developed nations, but in the case of Oelwein, their economy was crippled by external forces and now has to be rebuilt, and thus, their regeneration would require an initial dependence on outside sources. 3. ) In 1940, Vice-President elect Henry Wallace, who formerly served as Franklin D. Roosevelt’s activist agriculture secretary desired to visit Latin America before starting his official duties. He was dispatched to Mexico as a representative, where he applied his unique perspective to the Mexico’s destitute situation. Most Mexicans depended on farming. The Mexican revolution ousted a dictatorship and then seized land from a wealthy few and redistributed it among the poor. The new government had distributed out land to 1. 7 million landless peasants so that they could grow their own food, however this land form was not enough. Mexico did not have the necessary support systems for agricultural scientists, the rural population was illiterate, soils were depleted of nutrients and heavily eroded, basic tools were lacking; tractors were rare- this in turn limited production growth. In addition, diseases often times wiped out the wheat crop, forcing Mexico to import half of its needs. Wallace’s evaluative approach was to raise crop yields combined with Mexican farmer’s disciplined work ethic. Wallace connected to the resources at the Rockefeller foundation asking to the President Raymond B. Fosdick to conduct a study on how to increase Mexican harvests, Fosdick himself dispatched a trio of experts to scour the countryside. Soon enough, Harvard plant breeder Paul Mangelsdorf, Cornell agronomist Richard Bradfield, and University of Minnesota plant pathologist E. C. Stakman commenced on their research, convincing the foundation to set up a joint research program with the Mexican government in 1943, called the Office of Special Studies. The program’s mission was to train Mexican scientist on how to breed higher-yielding varieties of corn, wheat, and beans. Initial successes of the program included the newfound knowledge of â€Å"how to plant a few verities of inbred seed- the precursor to hybrid seed- allowing them to cross-pollinate naturally† (Thurow and Kilman 2009, 8). Stakman was interested in Mexico’s second-biggest crop, wheat. Wheat was a crop often subjugated to the fugal epidemics that turned fields into tangles of dead plants, leading to the discontinued production of wheat by Mexican farmers which were an unfortunate lost opportunity for protein. Stakman called upon two proteges from the University of Minnesota to aid him in his mission to end this plight, one would be the founder of the Green Revolution- Norman Borlaug. Borlaug, impatient by the time sucking process of cross-pollinating different varieties of wheat in rust-infested areas to find a natural immunity among them, decided on an unconventional method of breeding that including â€Å"shuttling newly harvested seed between the Yaqui Valley and his experimental plots near Mexico City† (Thurow and Kilman 2009, ). In four years, Borlaug generated his first rust-resistant plants, setting in motion a series of events that would lead to the Green Revolution. The main achievements of the Food Revolution were the high-yielding wheat crops that occurred with every Mexican farmer, leading to the successive spread of the seed throughout Mexico, and therefore the end of Mexico’s wheat shortage by the mid 1950s. And unlike hybrid corn, farmers could â€Å"save seeds from the best of their wheat harvest and plant them the next year to get the same results† (Thurow and Kilman 2009, 11). Borlaug’s wheat permeated to Asia, in India and Pakistan, which spurred Governments, private philanthropies and humanitarian organizations to fund and implement the construction of fertilizer factories, irrigation networks, infrastructure, and an introduction to new modern farming techniques. Similar effects took place in Pakistan, Turkey, Afghanistan, Tunisia, Morocco, Lebanon, Iraq, China and elsewhere throughout Asia. Additionally, the Green Revolution encouraged foundations and organizations from around the world to establish research centers, projects, and laboratories specializing in number of agricultural-based crops (agroforestry to fish). The shortcomings were evident in its early beginning; the yields were plentiful but sucked so much out of the soil that water and synthetic fertilizer replenishment was necessary. And because farmers could afford fertilizer, this boosted their harvests even further, reinforcing dependency on foreign supplied fertilizers, and therefore diverting funds from the local economy to an outside economy. Increase fertilizer use also introduced pesticides and nitrates that were poisoning to millions and millions of acres of land and some drinking water. This chemical pollution led to a general distrust of the Green Revolution by environmental groups and negative press. Geopolitical considerations would overpower altruistic intentions of the Green Revolution. The idea â€Å"to create an international agency that would control vast grain reserves for the purpose of responding to emergencies and feeding hungry children† was shot down because it would â€Å"reduce opportunities for the world’s agricultural powers to use their homegrown food aid as a tool for furthering their own diplomatic aims† (Thurow and Kilman 2009, 23). Ironically, the food revolution had empowered nations enough to the extent of elevating countries’ abilities for political and economic agendas. Another disappointment of the Green Revolution was the failed momentum. Public consciousness no longer had a strong grip; the â€Å"Malthusian Optimism† had befallen upon developed countries. The new crop surpluses and thus, low grain prices â€Å"created a false sense of accomplishment and security in the rich world† (Thurow and Kilman 2009, 24). Financial institutions, religious affiliated and nonreligious charity organizations slowly turned away, and aid agencies shifted attention to other social programs. Trends and use of agricultural subsidies have affected food security in developed and developing states more generally. The Green Revolution indirectly started overwhelming Government subsidies for exports, thereby instigating competition between developing countries. Between 1975 and 1985, the Green Revolution helped old U. S. customers such as Mexico and India to become less dependent on the west for grain. In order to keep domestic prices from depressing U. S. government subsidized exports of surplus wheat overseas. The European Community followed along the same strategy, subsidizing exports of wheat, beef, butter, milk and so on- all in efforts to protect farmers. Big multinational commodities firms took advantage of the subsidies race, playing the U. S. and Europe against each other for the cheapest grain, resulting in a distorted world market. The two arising developments, rich-world subsidies and cheaper commodities harshly impacted farmers in the developing countries who were not aided by their impoverished governments and therefore could not compete with similar levels of subsidies. Sasakawa Africa (Norman Borlaug and his team) and the Ethiopian government pushed for heavy production of crops resulting in surplus harvest through the late 1990s, and then a bumper year of 2001-2001, â€Å"when fields burst with about 13 million tons of grains and cereals† (Thurow and Kilman 2009, 72). But this positive outcome was not cultivated or optimized due to a number of factors unpredicted by Government and foreign aid shortsightedness. The government policy of structural adjustment failed the agricultural market in Ethiopia and Africa. Under this new policy, government ended responsibility for market functions (such as buying, transporting, storing, marketing of crops, fertilizer) and left them to a private sector, in expectation that the sectors would pick up these tasks. But rarely did these sectors have the capital and infrastructure to complete such tasks. Roads to ports were appalling, let alone the practically nonexistent ties to foreign buyers- exporting options were dismal. The country’s transportation network still relied on unproductive methods (donkeys), and local markets were undercapitalized to buy and store harvest. This, along with the absence of storage facilities that forced crops to come into the market at the same time caused a nationwide glut of corn and wheat, triggering a free fall in grain prices. Ethiopian farmers suffered as what was reaped was far below what it had cost to sow. Another main effort to mitigate food famines in Ethiopia was a considerable amount of American food aid, but this was also not enough. After the 1894 famine, â€Å"Ethiopia routinely had been the largest annual recipient of emergency food aid†¦. U. S. ood aid was running at more than $250 million a year leading up to 2003† (Thurow and Kilman 2009, 88). The negative reaction to this, however, was the contraction of longer-term aid and projects to develop agriculture. In 2003, U. S. aid was $500 million and $5 million in development projects. It was illogical, food aid partly helped in aiding against the hunger, but never entirely, rather it seemed to be perpetuating it. Ethiopia became a global welf are state, its farmers and people at first feeling shameful and resentful to having willful acceptance that border on righteousness to aid.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

GPA, SAT, and ACT Admissions Data for the Ivy League

GPA, SAT, and ACT Admissions Data for the Ivy League The eight Ivy League schools are among the most selective colleges in the country. This doesnt mean that you need a 4.0 GPA and 1600 on the SAT to get in (although it doesnt hurt). All the Ivy League schools have holistic admissions, so they are looking for students who will contribute more than good grades and test scores to the campus community. A winning Ivy League application needs to present a strong academic record, meaningful extracurricular activities, glowing letters of recommendation, and a compelling application essay. Your college interview and demonstrated interest may also help, and legacy status can give you an advantage. When it comes to the empirical part of your application, you will need good grades and standardized test scores to get accepted to an Ivy League school. All of the Ivies accept both the ACT and SAT, so choose the exam that works best for you. But how high do your grades and test scores need to be? Follow the links below to learn more about each Ivy League school, and to see admissions data for accepted, rejected, and waitlisted applicants: Brown University Located in Providence, Rhode Island, Brown is the second smallest of the Ivies, and the school has more of an undergraduate focus than universities such as Harvard and Yale. Their acceptance rate is only 9 percent. The great majority of students who get into Brown University have a nearly perfect 4.0 GPA, an ACT composite score above 25, and a combined SAT score (RWM) of above 1200. Columbia University Located in Upper Manhattan, Columbia University can be an excellent choice for students looking for an urban college experience. Columbia is also one of the largest of the Ivies, and it has a close relationship with neighboring Barnard College. It has a very low acceptance rate of around 7 percent. Students accepted at Columbia have GPAs in the A range, SAT scores (RWM) above 1200, and ACT composite scores above 25. Cornell University Cornells hillside location in Ithaca, New York, gives it stunning views of Cayuga Lake. The university has one of the top engineering and top hotel management programs in the country. It also has the largest undergraduate populations of all the Ivy League schools. It has an acceptance rate of about 15 percent. Most students accepted at Cornell have a GPA in the A range,  Ã‚  SAT scores (RWM) above 1200 and ACT composite scores above 25. Dartmouth College If you want a quintessential college town with its central green, nice restaurants, cafà ©s, and bookstores, Dartmouths home of Hanover, New Hampshire, should be appealing. Dartmouth is the smallest of the Ivies, but dont be fooled by its name: it is a comprehensive university, not a college. Dartmouth has a low acceptance rate of 11 percent. To be accepted, students tend to have A averages, an ACT composite score above 25, and a combined SAT score (RWM) of above 1250.   Harvard University Located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, with dozens of other colleges and universities nearby, Harvard University is the most selective of the Ivy League Schools as well as the most selective university in the country. Its acceptance rate is just 5 percent. For the best chance of acceptance, you should have an A average, SAT scores (RWM) over 1300, and ACT composite scores above 28. Princeton University Princetons campus in New Jersey makes both New York City and Philadelphia an easy day trip. Like Dartmouth, Princeton is on the smaller side and has more of an undergraduate focus than many of the Ivies. Princeton accepts only 7 percent of applicants. To be accepted, you should have a GPA of 4.0, SAT scores (RWM) above 1250, and ACT composite scores above 25. University of Pennsylvania The University of Pennsylvania is one of the larger Ivy League schools, and it has a roughly equal population of undergraduate and graduate students. Its campus in West Philadelphia is just a short walk to Center City. Penns Wharton School is one of the top business schools in the country. They accept about 10 percent of applicants. To be accepted, you should have a GPA of 3.7 or higher,  a combined SAT score (RWM) of over 1200, and an ACT composite of 24 or higher. Yale University Yale is close to Harvard and Stanford with its painfully low acceptance rate. Located in New Haven, Connecticut, Yale also has an even larger endowment than Harvard when measured in relation to enrollment numbers. Yales acceptance rate is just 7 percent. For the best chance of acceptance, you need a 4.0 GPA, SAT score (RWM) above 1250, and an ACT composite score above 25. A Final Word All of the Ivies are highly selective, and you should always consider them to be reach schools as you come up with your short list of schools to which you will apply. Thousands of extremely well-qualified applicants are rejected by the Ivies every year.

Monday, October 21, 2019

Wal-Mart effects on Small Buisnesses

Wal-Mart effects on Small Buisnesses Free Online Research Papers The large Wal-Mart Corporation is moving into small communities and is taking over. The competition that the smaller companies must face is too much for them to overcome and be able to survive in the declining state of the area they function in. HH hardware after being in business for a long period of time in their small country town where they sold field equipment a Wal-Mart was given a grant by the state and was allowed to move into the county here the Wal-Mart opened and sent the smaller businesses into a state of decline or in most cases bankruptcy. In any case the smaller companies would not stand a chance for the competition with Wal-Mart. The Wal-Mart industry has taken a vertical integration by taking over all points of the production lines. First they have the production lines taken over and run by people in foreign countries and underpaying the workers by a large degree. Also the workers here in America are also underpaid and often cheated of most of their wages that they have rightfully earned. The managers have even been taught how to go into the system under a false username and move a person’s wages from one week to the next to ensure they do not have to pay current overtime wages hereby saving the Wal-Mart company a majority of money. Some people have seen this and taken to getting back what is rightfully theirs and they have filed lawsuits against the Wal-Mart industry to get back the money they deserve. Wal-Mart also sucks the small town economies dry by getting all the funding they need while the solo independent workers have to go off only their personal funds. Wal-Mart has forced several people to go into the countries funding because they wish to fill their own pockets. The people that work for them are underpaid and need the raises. I take the Wal-Mart company is hurtful and helpful at the same time. While the company forces hundreds of thousands of workers into poverty and mistreat the workers of their company the company still helps those that do not work at the company with the lower prices which are the only bit of help people receive. In the foreign countries the companies underpay the people so much and mistreat them that the people are not even in suitable living conditions. The CEO’s of the company make over 20 million dollars a year while their workers are barely making minimum pay. If the CEO’s would simply give even 25% of the money that they make for their personal self they could help the workers much more save the tax payers dollars and help to give the industry a better living life. The company is hurting us more than it helps us and barely gives back to the country. Wal-Mart has even told its workers that programs are out there to help them when the company itself makes more money than any other industry in the world. Also in the other countries the company forces its workers to work overtime under penalty of being fired or even worse they could be abused. All in all the company has been hurtful to the economy and needs to show more respect to the industry in which it operates. I think that if it does not give back more and help its employees more it should be treated as a monopoly and separated like the government would separate a monopoly. Research Papers on Wal-Mart effects on Small BuisnessesTwilight of the UAWAnalysis of Ebay Expanding into AsiaNever Been Kicked Out of a Place This NiceThe Effects of Illegal Immigration19 Century Society: A Deeply Divided EraAssess the importance of Nationalism 1815-1850 EuropeDefinition of Export QuotasResearch Process Part OneMarketing of Lifeboy Soap A Unilever ProductWhere Wild and West Meet

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Marcus Cocceius Nerva, First of Romes Good Emperors

Marcus Cocceius Nerva, First of Rome's Good Emperors Marcus Cocceius Nerva (November 8, 30 CE–January 27, 98 CE) ruled Rome as emperor from 96–98 CE following the assassination of the much-hated Emperor Domitian. Nerva was the first of the five good emperors and was the first to adopt an heir who wasnt part of his biological family. Nerva had been a friend of the Flavians without children of his own. He built aqueducts, worked on the transport system, and built granaries to improve the food supply. Fast Facts: Marcus Cocceius Nerva Known For: Well-regarded and respected Roman emperorAlso Known As: Nerva, Nerva Caesar AugustusBorn: November 8, 30 CE in Narnia, Umbria part of the Roman EmpireParents: Marcus Cocceius Nerva and Sergia PlautillaDied: January 27, 98 CE at the Gardens of Sallust, RomePublished Works: Lyric poetryAwards and Honors:  Ornamenta Triumphalia for military serviceSpouse: NoneChildren: Marcus Ulpius Traianus, Trajan, the governor of Upper Germany (adopted)Notable Quote: â€Å"I have done nothing that would prevent me laying down the imperial office and returning to private life in safety.† Early Life Nerva was born November 8, 30 CE, in Narnia, Umbria, north of Rome. He came from a long line of Roman aristocrats: his great-grandfather M. Cocceius Nerva was consul in 36 CE, his grandfather was a well-known consul and friend of Emperor Tiberius, his mothers aunt was the great-granddaughter of Tiberius, and his great uncle was a negotiator for the emperor Octavian. While little is known of Nervas education or childhood, he did not become a military professional. He was, however, well known for his poetic writings. Early Career Nerva, following in his familys footsteps, pursued a political career. He became praetor-elect in 65 CE and became an advisor to Emperor Nero. He discovered and exposed a plot against Nero (the Pisonian conspiracy); his work on this issue was so significant that he received military triumphal honors (though not a member of the military). In addition, statues of his likeness were placed in the palace. Neros suicide in 68 led to a year of chaos sometimes called the Year of Four Emperors. In 69, as a result of unknown services rendered, Nerva became a consul under Emperor Vespasian. Though there are no records to support the assumption, it seems likely that Nerva continued as consul under Vespasians sons Titus and Domitian until the year 89 CE. Nerva as Emperor Domitian, as a result of conspiracies against him, had become a harsh and vengeful leader. On September 18, 96, he was assassinated in a palace conspiracy. Some historians speculate that Nerva may have been involved in the conspiracy. At the very least, it seems likely that he was aware of it. On the same day, the Senate proclaimed Nerva emperor. When appointed, Nerva was already well into his sixties and had health issues, so it was unlikely he would rule for long. In addition, he had no children, which raised questions about his successor; it may be that he was selected specifically because he would be able to handpick the next Roman emperor. The initial months of Nervas leadership focused on redressing Domitians wrongs. Statues of the former emperor were destroyed, and Nerva granted amnesty to many whom Domitian had exiled. Following tradition, he executed no senators but did, according to Cassius Dio, â€Å"put to death all the slaves and freedmen who conspired against their masters.† While many were satisfied with Nervas approach, the military remained loyal to Domitian, in part because of his generous pay. Members of the Praetorian Guard rebelled against Nerva, imprisoning him in the palace and demanding the release of Petronius and Parthenius, two of Domitians assassins. Nerva actually offered his own neck in exchange for those of the prisoners, but the military refused. Finally, the assassins were captured and executed, while Nerva was released. While Nerva retained power, his confidence was shaken. He spent much of the remainder of his 16-month reign attempting to stabilize the empire and ensure his own succession. Among his achievements were the dedication of a new forum, repairing roads, aqueducts, and the Colosseum, allotting land to the poor, reducing taxes imposed on Jews, instituting new laws limiting public games, and exercising greater oversight over the budget. Succession There is no record that Nerva married, and he had no biological children. His solution was to adopt a son, and he selected Marcus Ulpius Traianus, Trajan, the governor of Upper Germany. The adoption, which took place in October of 97, allowed Nerva to placate the army by selecting a military commander as his heir; at the same time, it allowed him to consolidate his leadership and take control of the provinces in the north. Trajan was the first of many adopted heirs, many of whom served Rome extremely well. In fact, Trajans own leadership is sometimes described as a golden age. Death Nerva had a stroke in January 98, and three weeks later he died. Trajan, his successor, had Nervas ashes put in the mausoleum of Augustus and asked the Senate to deify him. Legacy Nerva was the first of five emperors who oversaw the best days of the Roman Empire, as his leadership set the stage for this period of Roman glory. The other four good emperors were Trajan (98–117), Hadrian (117–138), Antoninus Pius (138–161), and Marcus Aurelius (161–180). Each of these emperors hand-selected his successor through adoption. During this period, the Roman Empire expanded to include the north of Britain as well as portions of Arabia and Mesopotamia. Roman civilization was at its height and a consistent form of government and culture expanded across the entire empire. At the same time, however, the government became increasingly centralized; while there were benefits to this approach, it also made Rome more vulnerable in the long run. Sources Dio, Cassius. Roman History by Cassius Dio published in Vol.  VIII of the Loeb Classical Library edition, 1925.The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. â€Å"Nerva.† Encyclopà ¦dia Britannica.ï » ¿Wend, David. Nerva. An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

The great depression Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

The great depression - Essay Example strophic collapse of stock-market prices on the New York Stock Exchange (â€Å"Black Thursday") in October 1929 remains the most severe economic depression experienced in America (Modern American Poetry1). Various factors caused the great depression. Apparently, the boom psychology and speculative euphoria resulted in underlying weaknesses and imbalances within the U.S. economy that caused the great depression (Modern American Poetry1). The federal government and financial institutions lacked capacity to address the underlying weaknesses and economic imbalances. Indeed, the American government could not sustain the rising personal debt, increased production of goods, and imbalance between the rich and the poor leading to the stock market crash of 1929. Economists assumed this was simply a correction of the market and hence did nothing to contain the situation. President Herbert Hoover underestimated the severity of the crisis and assured U.S citizens that the economic slump would not last for more than 60 days (WGBH Educational Foundation 1). Herbert did not consider government’s intervention on the matter. Consequently, stock prices continued to fall in America. By the end of 1932, stock prices had dropped to 20 % of their 1929 value. Apparently, the great depression started in America and spread to other industrialized nations across the globe between late 1929 and early 1940s. The U.S had forged fundamental relationships with other European economies after the First World War that allowed the great depression to turn into a global economic crash (Modern American Poetry1). The First World War, war debts, and the need to pay reparations (Modern American Poetry1) weakened European economies forcing them to rely on America, which was the chief creditor after the war (Quah and Crowley 8). As such, the economic slump in America and the depreciation of the American investment credits to Europe fostered economic challenges in Europe. Ideally, countries that were deeply

Friday, October 18, 2019

Summarize the arguements for and against plea bargaining Essay

Summarize the arguements for and against plea bargaining - Essay Example In this type of bargaining, the defendant pleads guilty to get fewer counts on the offense they are charged with. The bargaining processes are usually voluntary and it does not always result to an outcome that is desired by both parties. The plea bargaining practice is widely supported by the American judicial system due its importance in terms of saving costs incurred during trails alongside its many benefits on the court system. The plea bargaining practice benefits many stakeholders in the courtroom. First, it assists the prosecutor in disposing off a busy and complex caseload. Many prosecutors have limited resources within their access. It is therefore very hard to prosecute all the cases that come before them. Due to this fact, these prosecutors may decide to push forward the cases that have public elements through the rigorous court procedure while going for plea-bargaining on the ones that do not look very promising and do not have much public significance. The defense attorney also benefit from the plea-bargaining. Most of these defense attorneys are public attorneys who offer their services to defendants of criminal cases. They also face resources constraints such as the ones prosecutors face. This implies that plea-bargaining benefits this type of attorneys by facilitating quick disposal of cases. The outcome of this process is more payment by the defense for less work done by the defense attorneys. The plea-bargaining process benefits the defendant more than it does to both the prosecutor and the defense attorney. This is because it results to the defendant getting a lesser charge as compared to the one that they could get. The plea-bargaining processes also benefits the court since it saves its resources. The reviewing of plea bargaining is simpler and easier as compared to the full trial of a case. There are several problems associated with plea bargaining process. First, the prosecutor will always start the bargaining process on

The Failures and Contributions of Herod the Great and the Herodians to Assignment

The Failures and Contributions of Herod the Great and the Herodians to the history of Judaism - Assignment Example Judas Maccabeus was the son of Mattathias. Maccabeus’ popularity lies not only because of his participation in biblical history but also because of his martial achievements. He proved his talents by leading the Maccabean Revolt. Judas displayed extraordinary skills as a leader, military tactician, and diplomat (Julius 2000). After attaining religious freedom, Judas and his friends turned their attention to politics. After the death of Judas Maccabeus, there came the leader Jonathon Maccabeus, the brother of Judas. Jonathan was a man of prudence and great skills (Julius 2000). As a diplomat, he could effectively utilize the internal strife of Seleucid and succeeded in expanding Jewish held territory and acquiring virtual independence. Jonathan was immediately followed after his death by his brother Simon, and he followed exactly what his brothers did. It was the strength of his military forces that forced the Seleucid king, Demetrius II to depend on Simon for help and support. The rulers followed after Simon, except the Antipater, were not much popular. Most of the leaders in the Intertestamental Period had kept secret plans with them. ...Therefore, one can identify the modern counterparts of the Judaism and the series of wars aimed at a particular sect of people or creed. Trace the history of Herod the Great and the Herodians. What were their major contributions to the history of Judaism and the Jews? What were their main failures? King Herod the Great (47-4 B.C.), first ruled as the Governor of Galilee (47-37 B.C.). He has often been regarded as a king who played a momentous role in the Herodian dynasty. Through his leadership and governing skills, he gained a proud reputation both with the Galilean Jews as well as with the Roman officials of Syria (Timothy, Gary 1998, 270). When Herod the Great became the King of the Jews, his rule created vivid reactions among the people and as such one can divide his rule into three definite periods: (1) The period o f consolidation (37-25 B.C.).  

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Online Recipe and Meal Planner Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 7000 words

Online Recipe and Meal Planner - Essay Example This info is useful for people who are on a diet and want to control the calories they receive. The manager or administrator is the person who controls the content of the website by adding/editing and removing the information. The administrator also keeps control of other aspects of a website like hosting, databases and technical support. The system is a web application and uses web server technologies. In includes a database (MS Access 2007) that stores the meal recipe, ingredient and costs and a web interface ( and C#) that interacts with the database. The final system will have to be uploaded on a real server however in the development and testing process it can be implemented on a local machine and using a virtual web server created by a development tool like Microsoft Visual Studio 2005. Once the development and testing has been successful, it can be uploaded on an actual server for all the internet users to use. The structure of database has to be designed in a way to comply with issues like data integrity. So the main focus has to be on the relational database and normalisation. Making sure that the query, insert, update and delete commands operate correctly, otherwise that could lead to a loss of data integrity. The reliability of this system will be achieved when all the tables in the relational database are of Third Normal Form (3NF). The reason is that most 3NF tables in relational databases are free of insertion, deletion and update anomalies. There are many different software development techniques used/employed when software is being developed.

Budget Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 3

Budget - Essay Example A soft earmark denotes a courteous request, which does not specify the amount of money, but steers funds to identified organizations. Lawmakers are in a capacity to request for funds to be allocated to a certain organization or project without the legal binding presented by hard earmarks (Mikesell, 2014). In my opinion, soft earmarks are more effective for lawmakers. Notably, with soft earmarks, lawmakers do not need to specify the amount of money and do not need to identify the sponsor. Therefore, through the use of respectful suggestion, a lawmaker can transfer funds to a favored organization without having to be accountable for the spending. Hard earmarks are highly criticized and compel lawmakers to account for the spending (p. 145). Soft earmarks do not add to the total spending because they do not involve the allocation of additional funds to any department. On the contrary, soft earmarks make requests of how a specific portion of the existing budget can be spent. The fact that they only represent a small percentage of the government’s outlets on an annual basis serves to emphasize that they do not count in the total spending (p. 146). In my opinion, the control of earmarks is an important public issue because it concerns federal funds. Notably, earmarked funds determine projects in a state that will receive funding. Since lawmakers have only been earmarking funds for their preferred organizations, some deserving projects have been left out. Therefore, it is of critical importance for earmarks to be placed under the control before lawmakers use them to promote personal interests. Earmarks have been used by lawmakers in an effort to deliver â€Å"goodies† to districts or states. Usually, a district deserves pork if it offered support to a lawmaker. Therefore, lawmakers rely on soft earmarks in delivering pork to their states. The fact that they do not need to disclose the purpose of spending in soft

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Online Recipe and Meal Planner Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 7000 words

Online Recipe and Meal Planner - Essay Example This info is useful for people who are on a diet and want to control the calories they receive. The manager or administrator is the person who controls the content of the website by adding/editing and removing the information. The administrator also keeps control of other aspects of a website like hosting, databases and technical support. The system is a web application and uses web server technologies. In includes a database (MS Access 2007) that stores the meal recipe, ingredient and costs and a web interface ( and C#) that interacts with the database. The final system will have to be uploaded on a real server however in the development and testing process it can be implemented on a local machine and using a virtual web server created by a development tool like Microsoft Visual Studio 2005. Once the development and testing has been successful, it can be uploaded on an actual server for all the internet users to use. The structure of database has to be designed in a way to comply with issues like data integrity. So the main focus has to be on the relational database and normalisation. Making sure that the query, insert, update and delete commands operate correctly, otherwise that could lead to a loss of data integrity. The reliability of this system will be achieved when all the tables in the relational database are of Third Normal Form (3NF). The reason is that most 3NF tables in relational databases are free of insertion, deletion and update anomalies. There are many different software development techniques used/employed when software is being developed.

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Realism and Idealism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Realism and Idealism - Essay Example Ideally, art should come from within an individual but this does not happen and instead, art is taught in schools. Courbet asserts that art cannot be taught and that it should come from inside an individual and should be an expression of the artists towards the things that surround him. In the same way, a person from another generation cannot accurately form an art of either the previous or he next generation. It is impossible to do so since an artist can only draw accurately what they experience. From this reading, it is clear that everyone knows their place in the society. The poor are aware that there are places they can only admire from afar but not get into. Even children are conscious of the poverty and the lanes that they should maintain. The children stare with amazement at how beautiful the building is yet the narrator had already exclaimed that it was unfinished. Further, the other guest is uncomfortable at the sight of the poor family and asks the companion to request the manager to send them away. The world has had a class struggle from time immemorial. There are those who own factors of production and those that work for the rich to earn a living. The bourgeoises are the rich in the society who continue accumulating wealth at the expense of the poor. The society has become such a money-minded community that even the prestigious professions such as medicine and engineering are focused on making money rather than helping the people. The proletariats, on the other hand, are the workers who work for the bourgeoises for a living. Once in a while they attempt to join hands so that they can have fair dealings with the bourgeoises. The strength of their unions and their demands is highly dependent on whether they will remain unified in the long run. For the proletariats to have a fair share in the society, they need to keep on fighting for their rights. A doll’s house is about a woman who leaves her husband and children to

Monday, October 14, 2019

OCD in Motion Picture Essay Example for Free

OCD in Motion Picture Essay As Good As It Gets is a movie that portrays the life of a person with a psychiatric disorder called obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The protagonist Melvin Udall (played by Jack Nicholson) is a novel script writer who lives in an apartment with Simon Bishop (played by Greg Kinnear) as his neighbor. Melvin’s odd behaviors make his life difficult when dealing with people around him. He is preoccupied with too many compulsions that he did not have time to build a healthy relationship with other people. He is not sensitive to the words he say not knowing that he is already hurting the person’s feelings. His life starts to change when Simon was hospitalized and Melvin was forced to take care of Simon’s dog, Verdell. The dog acted as a bridge for Melvin and Simon to become friends. Melvin also became close acquaintances with Carol Connelly (played by Helen Hunt), a waitress in the restaurant where he always dine. He falls in love with Carol but due to his unpredicted odd behaviors, Carol moves away from him. Thanks to Simon, he helped things become okay between Carol and Melvin. Deeply in love with Carol, Melvin tries to change his ways and the movie ended with a bright yet uncertain future. As the psychiatric disorder progresses, the patient as well as the people surrounding him starts to complain about his behavior. Below are several complaints the patient and his significant others have in the movie â€Å"As Good As It Gets†: Melvin to Simon: â€Å"Im clearing my head, dont like myself anymore. Im tired. † Melvin to Dr. Green: â€Å"Dr. Green, how can you diagnose someone with an obsessive- compulsive disorder and act as if he have some choice? Are you teasing me? † Carol to Melvin: â€Å" Dont you have any control of how creepy you are about to get? † â€Å"I want my life for just one minute but my biggest problem is somebody else has a free convertible so I can get out of this city! † â€Å"Stop it! Why cant I just have a normal boyfriend? Why? A regular boyfriend who doesnt go nuts on me! † Simon to Melvin: â€Å"Youre sick. Everything looks distorted and everything inside you. You hate everything so you can barely find a way to complain. † Generally speaking, the people are complaining about Melvins attitude. His attitude is so bothersome that it prevents him from building a healthy relationship with other people. Melvin tries to be nice to some people but his present attitude serves as a bias why most of them consider his kindness as an act of insult or deceit. He somehow develops an obsession with Carol. In order to know the problem of the client, it is better if the health provider would take some sort of history taking. History taking is important since it serves as a baseline to know the roots of a certain disorder. The history taking can be started with simple questions regarding the patients name, age, occupation and the like. Taking OCD into consideration, the health provider should ask specific questions that will help in understanding the disorder of the patient. If a patient is asked to describe his/her past childhood experiences, the client may state that he/she has experienced rigid toilet training. Toilet training is an important aspect that must be accomplished during toddler years. Considering the fact that autonomy must be favored more than shame and doubt, toilet training must be done in way the child practices his autonomy. The client may also say that whenever he/she experiences anxiety, he/she begins performing repetitive actions. Exploring deeper into the question, the client may also say that his compulsions or rituals take him several minutes or hours to accomplish. Attempts to stop these compulsions are reported to be unsuccessful. If asked about his/her relationship with other people, the client may say that he/she finds it hard to build a healthy relationship because his compulsions prevent him from doing so. In the movie, As Good As It Gets, actor Jack Nicholson portrays the role of a person with an obsessive compulsive disorder. Obsessive compulsive disorder is an anxiety disorder wherein the person has recurrent unwanted thoughts called obsessions. To relieve the anxiety brought by these thoughts, the person is involved in repetitive behaviors such as hand washing, checking and counting. These so called rituals or compulsions reduce a persons anxiety while deprivation from these rituals increases the person’s anxiety. However, the action only provides temporary relief. Jack Nicholson shows odd behaviors which add humor to the movie. Whenever he washes his hands, he always uses a new soap then throws it away. He also avoids stepping on the cracks on the floor whenever he goes outside his apartment for a walk. At the same time, he feels that he should eat on the same table in his favorite restaurant and even bring along his plastic utensils whenever he dines there. The way of locking and unlocking the doors of his apartment is complicated as well as turning the lights on and off. He needs to follow certain number of times before getting over with it. He is characterized as verbally abusive which offends people most of the time. He also lives in solitary and has no friends at all, although he is considered as a famous novel writer. Those living with this kind of people find themselves in a state of frustration. The obsessions as well the compulsions make the lives of these people difficult. To support the diagnosis of OCD on Melvin Udall, certain criteria must be met with DSM TV IR. Obsessions of a client with OCD must be intrusive, inappropriate, recurrent, and persistent, and causes distress and anxiety. There are unsuccessful attempts to ignore the obsessions with positive adaptive actions and thoughts. People with this disorder are not excessively worried about real life problems and they usually recognize that these obsessions are produced by their own thoughts. On the other hand, the compulsions of a person with OCD are converted to repetitive behaviors such as hand washing, counting, and arranging things according to color, height, and the like. They display these excessive behavior or mental acts for them to prevent distress or frightening events. At some point during the course of the disorder, the client will recognize that these excessive thoughts and behaviors are inappropriate or unreasonable. The compulsions themselves are time consuming and they interfere with the client’s ability to perform for their daily needs. Such needs would include food, occupation, social activities, and healthy relationship with other people. Lastly, these obsessions and compulsions are not side effects of other substances such as alcohol or medications. They are merely coping mechanisms for a person to relieve anxiety. Considering that the patient has obsessive compulsive disorder, sets of treatment are planned to help relieve the patient’s anxiety. Treatments or interventions can be divided into three: therapeutic relationship, psychopharmacology, and milieu management. Starting off with the therapeutic relationship, the nurse must ensure that the basic needs such as food, clothing, grooming, and the rest are met by the client. Client has less time in dealing with these activities since they are preoccupied by their obsessions and compulsions. Provide time for the patient to finish the ritual. Setting limits has more advantage than stopping the ritual abruptly because it may ensue panic than relief. Prepare simple yet structured activities for the client. This is a good and productive diversion for the client’s obsessive compulsive behavior. Whenever the client demonstrates a non-ritualistic behavior, give praise or recognition. This will increase self-worth and self-esteem. Be empathic with the client and be aware of the need in performing the rituals. It will convey acceptance and understanding on the client’s situation. Certain drugs also help the patient deal with OCD. Clomipramine is considered as the drug of choice in dealing with these clients. However, a certain group of drug is said to be effective for this kind of psychiatric disorder. They are called Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI). SSRI is a kind of antidepressant that treats depression, anxiety disorders, and some personality disorders. As the name suggests, it prevents the reuptake of serotonin whose action is to elevate the mood. Since OCD is an anxiety disorder, it is proven to be effective and helps in dealing with the anxiety of the patient. Some of SSRI drugs commonly used are fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, and sertraline. However, one should watch the side effects of these drugs. SSRIs are known to cause gastrointestinal symptoms like nausea and diarrhea. They are also known to cause anticholinergic effects as well as sexual dysfunction. Milieu management also helps in the treatment of anxiety disorders particularly the cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). Although rooted in two different theories, it is found to be effective in treating patients with anxiety disorder. The basic concept of using the CBT in anxiety disorders is systematic desensitization or in vivo approach. It is believed that fear is learned and continued to be learned unless the client is exposed to certain stimuli. Initial exposure causes an increase in physical and emotional distress. As the desensitization therapy progresses, the client then will learn how to unlearn hi/her fear. In OCD, there is what we call exposure with response prevention which is directly under the CBT. The aim of CBT is the same with systematic desensitization. Nonetheless, as anxiety is relieved, so is the ritualistic behavior of the client. Others would also consider thought stopping, a technique wherein the client’s intrusive obsessions are substituted with adaptive ones such as deep breathing or walking. As the treatment goes, several outcomes must be predicted in order to evaluate whether the treatment is effective or not. It can be short term or long term. Short-term outcomes would include the following: 1. Patient will be able limit the time needed in performing rituals. 2. Patient will report and identify strategies and actions that will be substituted for compulsions. 3. Patient will be able to finish and focus on the structured activities given to them by their health provider. These short-term outcomes must be followed in order for the client to achieve long-term outcomes. Nonetheless, long-term outcomes would include: 1. Patient will be able to develop strong and healthy relationship with the people surrounding him/her. 2. Patient will be able to substitute compulsions with positive adaptive behaviors and thoughts. References Ziskin, L. (Producer), Brooks, J. L. (Director). 1997. As Good As It Gets [Motion Picture]. United States: TriStar Pictures

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Analysis Of Collocations, Phraseology And Idioms

Analysis Of Collocations, Phraseology And Idioms In our life we often meet situations when people use idioms and collocations. We can hear when somebody says: something is dead sure or I have to keep a tight rein on Tom. Young people often think what does it mean? or How can we translate it?. People have huge problems in the translation of phraseology. Grammar problem is common, because there are several constructions of grammar poorly understood. Very often it is not clear how they should be represented, or what rules should be used to describe them. I would like to mention that in English one linguistic form can be used to encode of meaning while in Polish form and meaning usually are conditioned by each other. English speakers usually choose lexemes very broad in meaning to encode a message. Idioms, collocations and phraseology very often are used in business language, for example: to launch a campaign. We should know basic collocations, phraseology and idioms if we want to understand foreign languages. It can really help. On the other hand it is very important to study the relation between English and Polish phraseology and their culture. In the first part, I will present typological classification of bilingual dictionaries, theory of bilingual lexicography, function of bilingual dictionaries, target group or users, translation problems between Polish and English language, phraseology, expression, vallency collocation, loose collocation- basic terms, types of collocations. The second part contains a precise description of the dictionary included in my work. The third part has the character of dictionary and consists of a systemized extract of collocations with their English equivalents. Typological classification of bilingual dictionaries A bilingual dictionary or translation dictionary is a specialized dictionary used to translate words or phrases from one language to another. Bilingual dictionaries can be unidirectional, meaning that they list the meanings of words of one language in another, or can be bidirectional, allowing translation to and from both languages.(Al-Kasimi 1983: 10) Bidirectional bilingual dictionaries usually consist of two sections, each listing words and phrases of one language alphabetically along with their translation. In addition to the translation, a bilingual dictionary usually indicates the part of speech, gender, verb type, declension model and other grammatical clues to help a non-native speaker use the word. ( Hartman 1998: 25) Dictionaries can be classified into various types of the basic of different criteria. To begin with we have to differentiate between dictionary proper and dictionary like works. Zgusta (1971) calls these linguistic and non-linguistic dictionaries respectively. The linguistic dictionaries are concerned with the words or lexical units of languages and they are called word books. The non-linguistic dictionaries are not concerned with words but with realia or denotata (thing)) they are called encyclopedias, or thing books. They are similar to dictionaries only in their alphabetical arrangement of words denoting the realia. Anyhow the aspects of the realia which are called encyclopaedic features such as description, photos, diagrams etc., are given in certain types of dictionaries to add to the utility of the dictionary. Classification of linguistic dictionaries has been attempted by a number of scholars such as Shcherba (1940), Sebok (1962), Malkiel (1959); Cornym (1967), Zgusta (1971), Svensen (1993). (Devapala 2004 : 2) Bilingual dictionaries have become a necessary part of our daily economic, intellectual, and cultural activities. A new system of classifying bilingual dictionaries, help language teachers to select the most appropriate dictionaries for their students. In 1934 Mansion noted that bilingual dictionaries are not scientific in their treatment of words, and have not kept pace with progress in philology.(Al-Kasimi 1983 : 85) There are many kinds of dictionaries such as glossary, concordance, vocabulary, word book, index, linguistic atlas, encyclopaedic dictionary. The classification of bilingual dictionaries: (Al-Kasimi 1983:12-13) Dictionaries for the speakers of the source language vs. dictionaries for the speakers of the target language; Dictionaries for production vs. dictionaries for comprehension; Dictionaries of the literary language vs. dictionaries of the spoken language; Dictionaries for the human user vs. dictionaries for machine translation; Historical dictionaries vv. Descriptive dictionaries; Lexical dictionaries vs. encyclopaedic dictionaries; Genaral dictionaries vs. special dictionaries The classification of bilingual dictionaries that are combined with machine translators on the Language Grid. The dictionaries on the Language Grid can be classified into the following three types: (WawrzyÅ„czyk 1996: 8) Global Dictionaries: This type of dictionary is a Web service that provides the standard interface of a bilingual dictionary. Further, such types of dictionaries are registered on the Language Grid. In addition, Global dictionaries are large-sized bilingual dictionaries either specialized for certain domain or general purpose and are shared between the Language Grid Users (e.g., Online Dictionary of Academic Terms); Local Dictionaries: These are also Web services with a standard interface; however they are not registered on the Language Grid. These are large-sized dictionaries specialized for a certain user and are not open to the other Language Grid users. (e.g A Dictionary for NPO Pangaca) Temporal Dictionaries: These dictionaries unlike the other two types, are not Web services and are only accessiblefrom a users application system. These are typically small-sized dictionaries specialized for a certain user and are not open to the other Language Grid users (e.g. Users Dictionary for Language Grid Playground) (Al-Kasimi 1983: 28). A bilingual dictionary can combine a number of the defining features of these contrasts in accordance with the purpose it is intended to serve. 1.2 Theory of bilingual lexicography This part is concerned with selected problems in bilingual lexicography. Lexicography is divided into two related disciplines: Practical lexicography is the art or craft of compiling, writing and editing dictionaries. (Fontenelle 2008: 45) Theoretical lexicography is the scholarly discipline of analyzing and describing the semantic, syntagmatic and paradigmatic relationships within the lexicon (vocabulary) of a language, developing theories of dictionary components and structures linking the data in dictionaries, the needs for information by users in specific types of situation, and how users may best access the data incorporated in printed and electronic dictionaries. (WawrzyÅ„czyk 1996 : 36) This is sometimes referred to as metalexicography. General lexicography focuses on the design, compilation, use and evaluation of general dictionaries, i.e. dictionaries that provide a description of the language in general use. Such a dictionary is usually called a general dictionary or LGP dictionary.(Hill 2002: 9) Bilingual lexicography is occasionally given an important place in lexicography. Most lexicographical literature is focused on monolingual dictionaries, and most often monolingual lexicography is considered to be the proper one. (WawrzyÅ„czyk 1996: 42) Practical lexicographic work involves several activities, and the compilation of really crafted dictionaries require careful consideration of all or some of the following aspects: Profiling the intended users (i.e. linguistic and non-linguistic competences) and identifying their needs, Defining the communicative and cognitive functions of the dictionary, Selecting and organizing the components of the dictionary, Choosing the appropriate structures for presenting the data in the dictionary (i.e. frame structure, distribution structure, macro-structure, micro-structure and cross-reference structure), Selecting words and affixes for systematization as entries, Selecting collocations, phrases and examples, Choosing lemma forms for each word or part of word to be lemmatized, Defining words, Organizing definitions, Specifying pronunciations of words, Labeling definitions and pronunciations for register and dialect, where appropriate. (Hartman 1998:29) One important consideration is the status of bilingual lexicography, or the compilation and use of the bilingual dictionary in all its aspects. In spite of a relatively long history of this dictionary type, it is often said to be less developed in a number of respects than its monolingual counterpart, especially in cases where one of the languages involved is not a major language.(WawrzyÅ„czyk 1996: 45) Not all genres of reference works are available in interlingual versions, e.g. LSP, learners and encyclopedic types, although sometimes these challenges produce new subtypes, e.g. semi-bilingual or bilingualised dictionaries like Hornbys (Oxford) Advanced Learners Dictionary English-Chinese, which have been developed by translating existing monolingual dictionaries. 1.3 Functions of bilingual dictionaries Bilingual dictionaries have many functions. They are used for many tasks and by different groups of users: learners, translators, scholars. Bilingual dictionaries are used in order to aquire some knowledge about one or both of the languages, knowledge which is necessary above all for communication. Students need a good bilingual dictionary to help in their reading of simplified materials in the foreign language. A good bilingual dictionary is an indispensable tool for the student in the intermediate stage of foreign language learning. Some scholars argue that bilingual dictionaries are very inadequate and unnatural because they present words out of their natural elements-context, they put together items which hardly ever occur in the same communicative situation. According to A. Hill (2006) the ideal dictionaries are still and will always be, essential not only in a dictionary prepared for pedagogical purposes, but in only other dictionary as well. These five types of information are: the phonemic structure of word, in morphemic structure; the grammatical modification is undergoes, its syntactic habits, and its meanings. (Hill 2006: 20) A good dictionary should be different for foreigner students of the language and for the native speakers. (Al-Kasimi 1983: 55) 1.4 Target groups or users Users belong to different groups such as children, students, teachers, scientists, trainees, technicians etc. Hartman (1195) classifies the needs of the users into two types (Hill 2006:56): Information: It is one of the factors for the users seek to help of a dictionary to check spellings, meaning, synonyms, pronunciation, etymology. Operations: That is, when the user performs tasks as reading, writing and translating.He refers to the dictionary to find words and meanings. From the point of view of types of users and their two types of needs, dictionaries fall into different categories such as dictionaries for children, students, translators, learners, scholars, creatives writes. Categorisation of the dictionaries from the point of view of user, influences the articulation of the work in the collection of material, selection of entries, choice of defining words while constructing the entries etc. Therefore, this is an important factor in dictionary making and the compiler has to clearly decide on the type of the users and their needs. 1.5 Translation problems There are some particular problems in the translation process: problems of ambiguity, problems that originate from structural and lexical differences between languages and multiword units like idioms and collocations. Another problem would be the grammar because there are several constructions of grammar poorly understood, in the sense that it isnt clear how they should be represented, or what rules should be used to describe them. (Schmalstieg 1969: 20) The words that are really hard to translate are frequently the small common words, whose precise meaning depends heavily on context. Besides, some words are untranslatable when one wishes to remain in the same grammatical category. Language problems: (Schmalstieg 1969:45) Idioms terms and neologism, Unsolved acronyms and abbreviations, Proper names of people, organizations, and places, Slang difficult to understand, Respect to punctuation conventions. English speakers usually choose lexemes very broad in meaning to encode a message. In contrast, very broad lexemes do not occur in Polish frequently, i.e. Polish: English: SzyĆ¡ sukienkÄâ„ ¢ make (sew) a dress 1.6 Phraseology and collocations-basic terms Phraseology appeared in the domain of lexicology and undergoes the process of segregating as a separate branch of linguistics. The reason is clear lexicology deals with words and their meanings, whereas phraseology studies such collocations of words (phraseologisms, phraseological units, idioms), where the meaning of the whole collocation is different from the simple sum of literal meanings of the words, comprising a phraseological unit. (Altenberg 1998:17) Phraseological units are (according to Prof. Kunin A.V. 1970) stable word-groups with partially or fully transferred meanings (to kick the bucket, Greek gift, drink till alls blue, drunk as a fiddler (drunk as a lord, as a boiled owl), as mad as a hatter (as a march hare)). (Altenberg 1998: 25) A phraseological unit is a lexicalized, reproducible bilexemic or polylexemic word group in common use, which has relative syntactic and semantic stability, may be idiomatized, may carry connotations, and may have an emphatic or intensifyi ng function in a text. (Cowie 2001: 10) A collocation is two or more words that often go together. These combinations just sound right to native English speakers, who use them all the time. On the other hand, other combinations may be unnatural and just sound wrong. Look at these examples: Natural English Unnatural English a quick shower a fast shower 1.7 Types of Collocation There are several different types of collocation made from combinations of verb, noun, adjective etc. We can distinguish: petrified collocations, vallency collocations and loose collocations. Petrified collocations function in the utterance as single words. They might be replaced by a single word equivalent or by equivalent collocation to fulfil a semantic function. (M.K 2008, 9) Valency collocatons have a considerable degree of cohesion but their components did not submit to lexicalization. Valency characteristic are for example: Polish English WysunĆ¦Ãƒâ€žÃ¢â‚¬ ¡ Ã…Â ¼Ãƒâ€žÃ¢â‚¬ ¦danie put forward a claim (Ã…Â ¼Ãƒâ€žÃ¢â‚¬ ¦daĆ¡) (claim) Loose collocations are formulated only by the concrete necessity of what the speaker intends to say. There are various possibilities for combinating single words to create a loose collocation.(J.B 1993, 19) A phrase in grammar, a phrase is a group of words functioning as a single unit in the syntax of a sentence. For example, the house at the end of the street is a phrase. It acts like a noun. It can further be broken down into two shorter phrases functioning as adjectives: at the end and of the street, a shorter prepositional phrase within the longer prepositional phrase. At the end of the street could be replaced by an adjective such as nearby: the nearby house or even the house nearby. The end of the street could also be replaced by another noun, such as the crossroads to produce the house at the crossroads. Most phrases have a central word defining the type of phrase. This word is called the head of the phrase. Some phrases, however, can be headless. For example, the rich is a noun phrase composed of a determiner and an adjective without a noun. 1.8 Types of phrases Phrases may be classified by the type of head taken by them: Prepositional phrase (PP) with a preposition as head (e.g. in love, over the rainbow). Languages using postpositions instead have postpositional phrases. The two types are sometimes commonly referred to as adpositional phrases(J.B 1993; 14). Noun phrase (NP) with a noun as head (e.g. the black cat, a cat on the mat) Verb phrase (VP) with a verb as head (e.g. eat cheese, jump up and down) Adjectival phrase (AP) with an adjective as head (e.g. full of toys, fraught with guilt) Adverbial phrase (AdvP) with an adverb as head (e.g. very carefully) 2. POLISH ENGLISH PHRASEOLOGICAL DICTIONARY 2.1 THE AIM OF THE DICTIONARY A phraseological dictionary is a special type of dictionary in which all entries function as collocation. Collocation is the way in which some words are often used together or a particular combination of words used in this way.(M.K, 2008, 5) The aim of Polish-English Phraseological Dictionary is to provide a broad range of phraseological vocabulary and give guidance on words which can be used with a headword. The source of Polish collocations is primarily Phraseological Dictionary of Polish Language by Skorupka ( S.S 1985;) and Phraseological Dictionary of Polish Language by Anna Ciesielska, Katarzyna MosioÅ‚ek-KÅ‚osiÅ„ska.(A.C 1990) In Polish phraseology there is a variety of expressions typical only of the Polish language. It is necessary to mention that not all English collocation given in my work reflect the exact meaning of the Polish ones.