Sunday, March 31, 2019

Small And Medium Enterprises And Their Characteristics Management Essay

Small And Medium Enterprises And Their Characteristics Man eonment EssayIn the musical way of lifern world economy, military control transactions layabout be conducted within the akin city, the same acres, or even between two countries. The bourn of sphericalisation has been adopted by many seekers, for instance approach (1995)A firms conflict in a specific alien grocery take ons according to an face chain, i.e. at the start no trade activities atomic bod 18 performed in the commercialiseplace, past export takes place via independent intendatives, later with a gross revenue subsidiary, and, eventually manufacturing whitethorn follow. internationalisation has hold out a significant re pursuit topic for moving in academics in the past forty years. A substantive amount of inquiry has foc officed on multinational endeavors (Dunning, 1973 Markusen, 1995 Kogut and Zander, 2003), with a out exploitation interest in the internationalisation of exquisite and spiritualist size of itd degradeprises (SMEs) (Oviatt and McDougall, 1994). stave pocket-size- and mediocre-sized companies (SMEs) have been believed to be significant in supporting economics onward motion within a country (Mazzarol, Volery, Doss, and Thein, 1999). For example, in the Netherlands, SMEs account 98.8% of all private-sector companies, go 31.6% to Gross domestic help carre tetrad (GDP), and employ 55% of the total manpower (EIM Business Policy Research, 1999). Further much, obtaining sales outside their own home(prenominal) market is a goal of many piffling and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and their regimes (Economic Development Board, 1993).This dissertation entrust be concentrated on the butt against of internationalisation of SMEs, and especially the breastworks of internationalisation and motivations for export activities. In fact, SMEs be able to develop abroad since nowadays countries all around the world have pay back almost monovula r in terms of cultures and institutional settings (Johanson and Vahlne, 2003).1.2 Problem contentionAccording to credit line indication, this on that point for demands to the following problem statementWhat be the barriers and motivations of internationalization with determine to mild and medium sized enterprises?1.3 Research QuestionsThe following questions will be posed in order to draw conclusions with respect to the problem statementWhat are the characteristics of small and medium enterprises?How do the enterprises internationalize?What are the challenges and drivers of internationalization?1.4 Research Method and Data Collection1.4.1 Research MethodThis thesis will use a literature get hold of as the mode of research. To be able to answer the research questions, the research method that shall be used is the literature study. To develop a theoretical framework, exploratory studies are used in this research. It is the most ideal type of research for obtaining a clear f ellow feeling of the phenomena of interest (Sekarana, 2003).1.4.2 Data ColletionMost of the re descents used are secondary data which is data that have already been ga on that pointd by separate researchers in the past (Sekarana, 2010). So far the author has piece several journals and articles discussing internationalization of small and medium enterprises as the main source of this thesis.Firstly, literature based on drivers and motivations of internationalization of small and medium enterprises were want using several search engines much(prenominal) as Google Scholar, and as well database such as JSTOR. The following keywords were used internationalisation, SMEs, Drivers and Motivations. These keywords were used separately and in combinations with from each one separate. Secondly, more literature, articles and statistical data were assemble from the internet. Google is used as the search engine.Finally, to determine the quality of the literature, it is important to count at the deem of citations from another(prenominal) high quality journal included in this literature. Another bearing to determine if literature is trustworthy is by looking at the references.1.5 mental synthesis of the ThesisIn the remaining chapters the structure will be as followsChapter 2 shall re flock and analyze well-nigh of the descriptions of small and medium enterprises and their characteristics, referring research question Q1.Chapter 3 will examine the theories and the process of internationalization.In chapter 4, I will investigate the opportunities and barriers to internationalization.In the last(a) chapter, conclusions will be pinched and the problem statement will be answered.2. SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES2.1. interpretation of SMEsThere is no single, uniformly acceptable description of a small firm (Storey, 1994). However, some definitions are very depending on criteria such as number of employees and turn everywhere. In 1971 Bolton Report (Dawes Haydock in Frank, 1999) attempted to thrash the problem of small firm definition by formulating what it called an economic definition and a statistical definition. Under the economic definition, a firm is regarded as small if it satisfied the following three criteria they had a relatively small share of their market place they were managed by owners or part owners in a personalized way, and not through the medium of a formalised anxiety structure they were independent, in the sense of not forming part of a astronomic enterprise.The Committee as well as formulated a statistical definition which was designed to address three main issues. The first base was to quantify the size for the small-firm sector and its contribution to economic aggregates such as gross national product (GDP), employment, exports and innovation. The second purpose was to compare the extent to which the small enterprise sectors economic contribution has changed over time. Thirdly, applying the statistical definiti on, this allows a comparison to be made among the contributions of small firms in one country with that of other nations.Furthermore, at that place is a lack of consensus on how to define SME (Gibb, 1993 Curran and Blackburn, 2001) as each country defines SME differently. For example, in the US and Canada, SMEs are generally defined as firms with few than 500 employees. In Japan, different headcount ceilings are used for manufacturing (up to ccc employees), wholesale (up to 150) and retail (up to 50).In this thesis we use the classification attached by the Commission of the European Communities (2003/361/EC 2003). According to the European substance (2003), an SME is an enterprise with fewer than 250 employees and a turnover no more than 50 million Euros or a balance sheet total of no more than 43 million Euros. Small enterprises employ less than 50 and micro enterprises less than 10 employees.2.2. Characteristics of SMEsSMEs are always one of the unparalleled subjects for the researchers. It may be distinguished from larger firms by a number of key characteristics. Researchers have drawn some characteristic for the SMEs. Characteristics oft discussed as typical of SMEs are as followedLimited picks (Welsh and White, 1981). A small and medium enterprise generally has restrict resources, which means they did not have coin to purchase the required machinery and to hire many workers. This is extremely true for overbold starts-up referable to an absence or lack of track record on the firm to entice potential investors and bankers. Hence, it is highly dependent on the strength of the owner to generate resources.Informal heed style (Kotey, 1999 and Slade, 2005). For small and medium enterprises, the heed is usually informal. The owner has to do almost every affaire and employees are normally expected to be able to duty as generalists as there is no clear division of tasks.Flexibility (Aragon-Sanchez and Sanchez-Marin, 2005). The enterprise has more tra ctableness to adapt to changes in the environment due to its size and informal structure. It is also vulnerable to grow in the enterprise environment. For example, any changes in government policy or technology readiness have a slopped influence on the firms since instant changes require additional resources or capital. This might become a constraint to the firms to compete and sustainitself in the market. colony on individual ratiocination makers (Feltham and Barnett, 2005). The firms are managed and operated by the owner. The entrepreneurs of the business lead the caller-out and play a role as both employee and employer. The harvest-time of the firms is obdurate by the owner. Decision making is comm nevertheless done by the owner.3. INTERNATIONALIZATIONDifferent approaches and perspectives have been contributed to the literature firms internationalization (Morgan and Katsikeas, 1997), and these issues have been researched over three decades (Etermad, 2004). For instance, a gradual perspective of SME internationalization is explained in the Uppsala Model, and the Finnish-POM Models (Johanson and Wiedersheim-Paul, 1975 Johanson and Vahlne, 1977). The other perspective is that SME internationalization is explained by an economic stance (Dunning, 1977), and another view is described by a mesh approach (Kenny and Fahy, 2004 Majkgard and Sharma, 1998 Welch and Welch, 1998). The last view is described as the International hot Venture perspective (Oviatt and McDougall, 1994 Zahra, Ireland, and Hitt, 2000). any these models are briefly discussed below.Of the gradual approaches, the Uppsala Model initiated by Johanson and Wiedersheim-Paul (1975) and hike up demonstrable by Johanson and Vahlne (1990 and 1977) is widely used to describe pattern of small firms internationalization (Andersson, 2004). In Uppsala Model, they make the distinction between state and change perspective of internationalization variables. They argue that the present state of the firm is the important agentive role in explaining future changes and subsequent represents. The state aspects are represented by the firms market commitment to the foreign market and the market association astir(predicate) foreign market and operations. The change aspect is seen as commitment end and the performance of current business activities.The concept of market commitment is false to be composed of two factors Firstly, the amount of resources committed, for example, the size of investment in the market (merchandising, personnel, organization etc.) Secondly, the degree of commitment, for instance, the difficulty of finding an alternative use for the resources and transforming them to practice. trade knowledge is seen as information nigh markets and operations which is in some way stored reasonable retrieval in the minds of individuals inside the firm, in computer memories or in written reports. International activities require both general knowledge about market operatio ns and market specific knowledge.Current business activities are the prime source of observational knowledge for the firm. It could be argued that feel could be gained alternatively through the hiring of the personnel with stupefy or through advice from persons with experience.Commitment decisions depend very much on experience since they are a response to perceived uncertainty and opportunities on the market. Decisions to commit further resources to specific foreign operations will more often be taken if experimental knowledge increases. This implies that additional market commitment as a rule will be made in small incremental steps because its takes time to gain experimental knowledge about foreign markets.The Uppsala model concentrates on the gradual acquisition, integration and use of knowledge about foreign market. According to this model, lack of knowledge is an important prohibition in the increment of international operations and such knowledge can be acquired mainly th rough operations abroad. The gradual acquisition of knowledge increase foreign commitments.The second gradual model distinguishes three dimensions of internationalization (Luostarinen, 1979). First is Product (P), which describes what in terms of the firms goods, advantages, know-how and systems. Second is the Operation mode (O) which relates to how firms operate such as through agents, subsidiaries, licensing and management contracts. Third is Market (M), which describes where in relation to the selection of markets and takes into account political, ethnic and physiologic differences. The organisational capacity dimension was a later addition to describe organizational structure, resources, finance and personnel (Welch and Luostarinen, 1988). Nonetheless, neither gradual model addresses the issues of networking.The networking view concentrates on non-hierarchical systems where enterprises invest to support and monitor their role in international networks. Referred to as the net work perspective, this research draws on the theories of social alter and resource dependence, and emphases on firm performance in the context of a network of interorganisational and social relationships (Axelsson and Easton 1992). Such relationships can include customers, competitors, suppliers, private and public support agencies, and friends, family and so on. Organizational boundaries therefore incorporate both business and social relationships.The system suggests three methods of internationalization International extension, explains how a company initially establishes connections with networks in other countries Penetration, the firms develops the relationships that arise from those networks, which is described as the penetration method International integration, the time when the company integrates the networks in different countries.Based to this research, internationalization determined by on an organizations set of network relationships rather than a firm-specific advan tage. Therefore, externalization (rather than inwroughtization) occurs. The network approach offers a complementary perspective to FDI conjecture given up the latter does not account for the role and impact of social relationships in business transactions (Granvetter 1985). Also, internationalization decisions and activities in the network approach start as patterns of behavior influenced by various network members, while FDI theory assumes coherent strategic decision-making. The network perspective introduces a more four-sided element to internationalization (Johanson and Vahlne 1992, p.12). Interestingly, this perspective has evolved from Johanson and Vahlnes previous(predicate) work, and reflects their ongoing research exploring the management of foreign market entre. For example, their (1992) study of internationalization in the situation of exchange networks found that even if foreign market entry is the gradual process (supporting the Uppsala model), it follow from int eraction, and the development and maintenance of relationships over time. These findings support Sharma and Johanson (1987), who found that proficient consulting firms operate in a network of connected relationships between organizations, where relationships become bridges to foreign markets and offer firms with the prospect and incentive to internationalize.The International New Venture theory emerged in the mid-nineties in response to the erudition that many firms do not go along with the gradual models in their internationalization process (Etemad, 2004a Kenny et al., 2004). These firms are called Born Global (Knight and Cavusgil, 1996 Rennie, 1993), whilst Oviatt et al., (1994) reveal them as Global Start-ups or International New Ventures (INV) firms. This model focuses on the age and not on the size of the firms and suggests that the INVs retain unique assets and capabilities that enable firms with curb resources to venture faster into foreign markets.Furthermore, Coviello and McAuley (1999) argue the internationalization happens gradually. With his extensive study of internationalization, Gripsurd (1990) points out that there is a three-stage model describing how an organization develops its international business study. First, the organization starts as a potential exporter, where they do not in time have the luck to export any of their goods or services. During this stage, the organization is console producing and distributing its products in the domestic market. Moreover, in the second stage, the firm is know as a passive exporter, where it has the opportunity to export its goods or services. However, they only represent upon request therefore, there is no self-initiative. To continue, in the third stage, the firm is known as an active exporter, when it is increasing export activities abroad. With respect to the explanations, it is clear that Bell (1995) and Gripsrud (1990) mainly focus on the idea that internationalization develops in a number of stages. It happens gradually, not just with a single movement.3.1 Process of InternationalizationThere are six steps that have been used for understanding about the internationalization of the small and medium enterprises. This process is not mattered only for the small and medium firms but applied in larger firms as well (Moberg and Palm, 1995 in Jennie and Zetterwall). These steps gnarly respectively, why internationalization (motives), company situation ( lift), what (product and service), where (market selection), how (entry modes), and when (point of entrance).3.1.1. Find out motives for internationalization.When a company goes internationalization it is often driven by certain stimuli or stimulus. Sometimes external and internal pressure such as competition, excess capacity of resources and a small and decline home markets put pressure on the company for proper international. Other time firms go international because they want to. They have a unique product that is not wi dely available from international competitors or a technological advance in a special field of battle (Czincota Ronkainen, 1995).3.1.2. Clearly define the current situation of the enterprise (through conducting a jampack analytic thinking).To enter a foreign market does not mean modernistic opportunities, but also a totally unseasoned situation with hot environment and cultures. To find out whether a firm is ready to act as and handle this juvenile situation or not, a complete analysis of the company situation has to be done by using SWOT analysis (Thompson Strickland, 1995, in Jennie Zetterwall). Companys economy, exertion, personnel, marketing, international experience and expression capabilities are some factors those must be analyzed into SWOT analysis (Moberg Palm, 1995 in Jennie Zetterwall). likely markets and marketing environment have to be analyzed to find winsome opportunities and avoid environmental threats.3.1.3. Decide on the product or service enterpri se wish to integrate in this process.The success of the firm depends on its products offered and on how well the firm is able to differentiate the product or service from what the competitors offer. When a company enters in a new market it should start with a small share of the assortment, mainly quality products or already established products.3.1.4. Select the right market to penetrate.When firm decides to enter foreign markets, the customers and market conditions are quite different from their home market. That stage firms gather up to enhance international marketing strategies considering different aspect of the marketing such as product, price, promotion, place, logistics, competition, and so on. The firms strategies decided, whether use to the surviveing product or develop a new product to serve the foreign market. A firm direct the international marketing should not only key out the product for different markets but should also develop suitable strategies for offset such products. Whether a single standardized can be offered intercontinental or a customize product need to be develop for each market is the most significant product decision that firms has to do while operating in international markets. In the international market, decision related to quality, packaging and labeling of product require specific attention and consideration. Product system of the firm in international markets is often influenced by cultural context (Joshi, 2005). Therefore, it is a responsibility of the manager/owner to know the sense of taste and preferences of the customer in a target market, and formulate the product outline according to the marketing conditions. Sometime color, size, and packaging of the product play resilient role in the success of the firm (Joshi, 2005).3.1.5. Decide on mode of entry.After the selection of the market has been done, the company has to decide how to approach the foreign market. A firm can, for example choose to sell directly to the final consumer, to sell indirectly through distributors and/ or agents, or to produce topically in foreign countries. The choice depend on factors such as, resource of the exporting company, the characteristics of the product, the goal of the internationalization, the distribution culture in foreign markets, and the number and demand of the customer (Czinkota Ronkainen, 1995).3.1.6. Find the right moment to do it.Furthermore, a company has to determine when to enter the foreign market. The company must be sure that market is ready, that the company has enough resources and the right market melodic line and product for specific market (Moberg Palm, 1995 in Jennie Zetterwall).Meanwhile, Masurel and Montfort (2006) searchd the changes between stages in the life cycle of small and medium-sized enterprises in the professional services sector. They distinguish four different, subsequent stages in the life cycle. 1. Starting 2. Growth 3. Maturity 4. Decline. They found that the f irst three stages represent an increase in diversification in sales, increase in differentiation of crowd force, and increase in outwear productivity. In the last stage, the diversification in sales, differentiations in labor force, and labor productivity all drop. As growth as one critical key in this life cycle, SMEs starts internationalization which has become more and more relevant to the competitiveness of enterprises of all sizes. Recently, SMEs that start with a global strategy can change swiftly to take advantage of cross-border activities, which offers chances not only for revenue growth but also the exchange of knowledge and the development of capabilities, thereby strengthening the long-term competitiveness of the firm.3.2. The Models of InternationalizationTookey (1969) developed an early example of modeling progression through various steps, pre-dating the Uppssalla model this involved the advancement of the firm from exporting, to international marketing and finally international business The behavioural approach of the Uppsala views internationalization as having four stages (Johanson and Wiedersheim-Paul 1975, Johanson and Vahlne 1977) while Bilkey and Tesar (1977) identify six steps, Aijo (1977), Cavusgil (1980) and Reid (1981) identify tail fin, while Czinkota (1982) identifies six.Johanson and Wiedersheim-Paul (1975), Johanson and Vahlne (1977)Stage 1 No perpetual export activities Stage 2 Export via agents Stage 3 mental home of a sales subsidiary Stage 4 Production or manufacturing in a foreign market.Bilkey and Tesar (1977)Stage 1 Management not concerned in exporting Stage 2 Management ordain to fill unsolicited orders but not effort made to explore feasibility of actively exporting Stage 3 Management actively explores feasibility of active exporting Stage 4 Firm exports by experimentation to psychologically underweight county Stage 5 Firm is now an see exporter Stage 6 Management explore feasibility of exporting to psychologica lly distant countries.Cavusgil (1980)Stage 1 Firm sells only in domestic market Stage 2 Pre-export phase, the firm searches for information and evaluates feasibility of starting time to export Stage Experimental involvement, firm begins exporting to psychologically close country Stage 4 Active involvement, exporting to more new countries, direct exporting and increase in sales volume.Czinkota (1982)Stage 1 The completely uninterested firm Stage 2 The partially interested firm Stage 3 The exploring firm Stage 4 The experimental firm Stage 5 The experienced small exporter Stage 6 The experienced large exporter.Reid (1981)Stage 1 Export awareness, problem of opportunity recognition and arousal of need Stage 2 Export intention, motivation, attitude, beliefs and exporting about exporting Stage 3 Export trial, personal experience from limited exporting Stage 4 Export evaluation, results from engaging in exporting Stage 5 Export acceptance, adoption of exporting or rejection of exporting. 4. DRIVERS AND BARRIERS TO INTERNATIONALIZATIONDrivers of InternationalizationThere must be some motivations hindquarters the decision to go international. Leonidou, Katsikeas and Percy (1998) determine that organizations are typically willing to market themselves for four reasons. First, it may be due to slow growth in the domestic economy as deductiond by a reduction in the number of the home market opportunities. Consequently, an organization will look for other opportunities by entering new international markets (Chandra, Styles and Wilkinson, 2009). Second, there may be a trade deficit followed by currency devaluation and a number of export restrictions. Third, the world trading system may become more liberalized leading to a minimization of international market entry barriers. Forth, it might be more intensive global competition in the global business environment.All these trends have developed the dynamic of exports. The creative activity of exports is not only due to the self-initiative of a company, but also by the government. This is also confirmed by Gripsrud (1990) who suggests that the government of a country may believe their firms to think globally by expanding their service areas to foreign markets, due to the expectation of an increasing volume of exports from the country. Thus, it will help the economy of that country.Furthermore, OECD (2009) also analyzed motivations for small and medium-sized internationalization including growth motives, knowledge-related motives, network or stoical ties and domestic or regional market factors.4.1.1 Growth MotivesGrowth opportunities associated with international markets were identified as a key driver of firm internationalization in several young studies (Orser et al., 2008), (Rundh, 2007), (Barnes et al., 2006), (Reynolds, 2007). The possibility of growth in other markets and increased profit opportunities from international expansion were highlighted as key stimuli for exporting. Firms oversea ven turing decision also seems to be motivated by a need for business growth, profits, an increased market size, a stronger market position, and to reduce dependence on a single or small number of markets. The growth motives is very closely linked to maximizing returns and minimizing costs in purchasing, production and sales.4.1.2 Knowledge-related MotivesGarvey and Brennan (2006) suggest that knowledge assets both adjure and pull SMEs into international markets. The push dimension pertains to the wideness of managers previous international experience and related management capacity factors. There are also related findings on the internationalization triggering effects of knowledge aspects, including RD investment, innovation capabilities, unique product or technology, and language skills and firm resource base, as indicated by such proxies as size, age, and experience.4.1.3 engagement or Social Ties and Supply Chain LinksCamara and Simoes (2008) have highlighted the importance of ne twork/social ties and come out chain links in triggering SMEs first internationalization step and extending internationalization processes. The research studies particularly reported the stimulating effect on export activity of firms soft assets, including social and network capital, some of which may have accrued through managers immigrant background and associated links.4.1.4 Domestic or Regional Market DriversThere is also support from recent relevant research (Lopez, 2007), (Staoian, 2006) on the push effects of firms limited or stagnating domestic market on internationalization behavior. The enterprise differed significantly in their export tendency, with export propensity increasing in regions with less well-heeled domestic conditions, local incentives to export and good export infrastructure. Recent evidence from Chile and Indonesia further suggest a greater tendency to export among firms from sectors characterized by high levels of export intensity and presence of foreign buyers. The Indonesian finding on the importance of foreign buyers presence is significant as it reinforces the earlier observed need to boost SMEs role in global value chains through facilitating their integration into production or supply systems of foreign affiliates of larger firms (OECD, 2008).4.2. Barriers to InternationalizationIn order to identify the term internationalization with the main focus of the thesis, Coviello and McAuley (1999) stated that not only large organizations, but also small and medium sized organizations, can become global. In addition, they also state that the international expansion of an SME is certainly useable when it comes to contributing to the economic growth and prosperity of a country. However, one thing that should be remembered is that not every SME is ready to expand into international markets. despite the fact that they have small or medium sized organizations, there must be some factors and limitations in terms of finding global market opportunities.There have been a number of studies which have focussed on the barriers to internationalization (Leonidou, 1995 Campbell 1994 Katsikeas and Morgan, 1994, Morgan 1997). The barriers to internationalization can be categorized into five broad areas financial, managerial, market based (including both the domestic and international markets), sedulousness specific and firm specific. It is widely acknowledged that barriers to internationalization can exist at any stage in the internationalization process (Morgan, 1997). Furthermore, the scholarship of the barriers can vary in intensity depending on the degree of internationalization of the individual firm (Burton and Schlegeliclch, 1987 Cavusgil, 1984 Kedia and Chhokar, 1986 Katsikeas and Morgan, 1994).4.2.1 Financial BarriersLimitations in finance and related physical resources have continued to be highlighted as a leading barrier to the internationalization of SMEs. It including financial barriers in general (Campbell, 19 94 Burpitt Rondinelli, 2000), resource availability ( Karagozoglu Lindell, 1998), cost of operating overseas (Bilkey, 1978), and limited access to capital and credit ( Buckley, 1989 Coviello McAuley, 1999). The given(p) evidence include the observed disadvantages faced by enterprises international new ventures or early-stage SME exporters, relative to their more established counterparts, in regard to accessing operating and term loans and the terms thereof. Lack of capital requirements and other firm resources and limited access to key infrastructure were also reported by SMEs.4.2.2. managerial BarriersDifficulties arising from limited managerial knowledge base emerge as a top barrier to SME internationalization in several recent surveys. managerial barriers are including managerial attitudes (Andersson, 2000 Burpitt Rondinelli, 2000), lack of international experience and skills (Karagozoglu Lindell), limited management time (Coviello McAuley, 1999 Buckley, 1989), commitment, and partnership difficulties. Managerial risk perceptions and lac

Caring for Pressure Sores in Elderly People

Caring for Pressure Sores in Elderly large number107582Caring for Pressure Sores in Elderly People with CirculatoryProblems from long Diabetes, in Nursing HomesPressure deliriouss atomic number 18 pullulates or ulcerations in the scrape up, that occur typically in the bring low half of the body over bony prominences that support the clog of the body during lying, standing, and sitting. The most typical aras that the elder are prone to developing haul sores include the heel, lower legs and feet, and lower back. The majority of wardrobe sores occur in battalion aged 70 or over through age-related health and lifestyle factors associated with the patriarchal.a) What forcible finagle needs do such elderly people tend to check?Damage to the skin leading to pressure sores trick cause transgresss of vary degrees of severity, which withdraw the electric potential to become infected. physiological sustentation through anguish treatment is thus essential and so eff ective co-working with medical module colleagues analogous the community nurses entrust be very grievous for care for home to manage. Prescri get laid medications to counteract infections and topical locations in order to serve healing are all part of the care routine for those with live pressure sores. Also within wound treatment, dressings and bandages will need to be alterd according to the patients care plan in order to minimise potential for infection. tangible care routines for elderly patients in nursing homes residential care can alike involve taking actions in order to minimize the put on the line from pressures, as well as back uping residents in wound treatment as outlined above. As diabetes will often grow the symptom of more frequent need for urination, incontinence whitethorn be particularly problematic as dampness in clothing, or in bed sheets etc, is likely to cause skin irritation and thus increases the peril from pressure sore. Physical care thus nee ds to involve frequent toilet visits, changes to sanitary hygiene products like pads, and changing bed uniform when necessary. Avoiding fictile bed padding is also preferable as plastic will trap dampness amongst the skin and the plastic and so could increase irritation.Foot care is a very important material need that elderly diabetic patients will often require help with. Due to changes to the bodys circulatory system and reducing qualification of the skin to heal and renew itself (turnover of epidermis can switch off by 50% in older age), once minor foot problems like in-grown toe-nails or blisters can lead to infections and potentially gangrene (in some instances requiring amputation). Ensuring patients / residents are wearing well fitting footwear and that toe-nails are kept fiddling should be completed by staff. This risk from pressure sores is also change magnitude by the diminution in sensitivity that aged-skin possesses elderly patients simply whitethorn non be ab le to feel that skin ulcers or pressure sores are developing until they are well advanced, and so more demanding to treat, and for the body to heal. Therefore regular checks and skin assessment in risk areas on the body such as the feet should pack up an important part of the care routine for elderly patients, who whitethorn not be able to do these checks themselves, or who may not discombobulate decent skin sensitivity to be aware of these problems as they occur.b) Why do such elderly people develop bed sores?Pressure sores (also cognize as bed sores) will come about through changes in the skin associated with ageing, severely restricted question, and when there the body has circulatory problems and the health outcomes associated with lamentable circulation. Those older patients with diabetes particularly, will often experience circulatory problems, which are then compounded by the restricted movement and general reduction in mobility involved within the aging process, whic h puts repeated or protracted pressure on certain points of the skin causing wear and tear that the body is unable to cope with.Elderly patients in general are susceptible to skin deterioration and pressure sores through the changes to their skin that make it thinner (dermal thickness can decrease by 20%) and weaker as they get older. These processes include the loss of subcutaneous tissue, diminished pain perception, decrease cell mediated immunity, slowed wound healing, and the altered barrier properties of aged skin. These biological changes to the skin have the medical implications that the bodys local instigative responses will diminish which slows the healing process, and arresting loss in the skin may follow. These are particular factors that expose the elderly to pressure sores.In conjunction to the risk from age-related skin changes, the high number of elderly patients who have diabetes means that compromised circulatory systems can put people at thus far higher risk. This happens because diabetes affects the bodys ability to effectively regulate stock as the high levels of glucose that remain in the derivation begin to damage the blood vessels, and it is this process that begins to inhibit circulation of blood around the body. Over time, poor circulation can have the effect where limb extremities begin to suffer and will start to change in the horse sense they arouse a note that is particularly common is tingling in the lower legs and feet. A change in sensation especially within the legs can be implicative of worsening circulation which can have serious implications if a pressure sore occurs. Poor circulation compromises the healing process meaning it takes longer for wounds to heal, and leave people more susceptible to developing infections and potentially gangrene. Change in sensation is also often coupled with sensory loss, where by people may be unable to feel when they have a pressure sore, and so wounds may be left untreated for som e time if not regularly checked by self or others.The restricted movement which many elderly people in care homes experience also puts them at risk. Prolonged sitting or lying for people who have difficulty walking or who are bed-bound are those that are in the highest risk group. Hip-fractures, neurological disease paralysis from conditions such as slice are common within elderly populations and so should be monitored accordingly. Strokes are often a problem for those with diabetes due to the damage that high levels of glucose causes to blood vessels, which can eventually begin to exert on the arteries, so elderly diabetic patients may suffer immobilization and sensation loss resulting from twain strokes and poorer general circulation from the diabetes.c) Describe one Clinical Skill necessary to put up the relevant physical care need(s) of the patients. Describe how this skill would be applied. formulate a dislodge (regular tour) schedule may help to alleviate the nisus on ce rtain areas of the skin for those with restricted mobility or with general immobilization. As mentioned previously, elderly diabetic patients are likely to suffer poor circulation which can lead to change in skin sensation and eventually sensory loss over some areas of skin. Through this process people may sit or lie for much longer periods of time, or be unable to move at all so increasing the accent mark placed on set areas of skin younger adults for instance typically shift their body weight every 15 minutes, even whilst asleep.Physical care should thus include assessing the repositioning needs of individual patients or residents some documents discuss a 2-hour turning schedule as a bench mark. The time needed between movements and turning of the body may however be greater for those at higher risk of pressure sores, such as though who have severe mobility restriction or immobilization those who have existing wounds, those on sedating medications (and therefore may reduce thei r movements according to when on medication and when not. Also factors like whether special mattresses or support surfaces are being used will affect the enjoin at which people will need to be repositioned. Skin follow-up should also determine the repositioning needs of individual patient needs.Physical care routines should therefore apply repositioning by alternating residents / patients between sitting, standing, lying particularly whether people can engage in physical activities during the day. Short walks, encouraging movement or moving residents between incompatible rooms within residential care (such as between communal lounges, gardens conservatories etc) where possible will provide health benefits as well as reducing relief from pressure sores by shifting body weight through movement and activity. For those with severe immobilisation or those who are bed bound, rotating body weight for lying on back to sitting in bed etc should be maintained along with regular small shift s in body movement (adjusting pillow position, angle at which sitting). Written repositioning schedules are also good practice in places of residence (such as nursing homes) where multiple caring staff will be applying the turning and repositioning of the patient this will help to ensure that the devised schedule of movements is followed.d) livelihood literatureJournal ArticlesPandya, N. (2003) Diabetes management in long-term-care Caring for the AgesVol. 4 no. 2 p21-24Richens, Y. Stephens F. Bick, D. Morrell, C. Loftus-Hills, A. Duff, L. (2003) Pressure ulcer risk assessment and prevention amend practice, improving care Clinical practice Guidelines, Royal College of Nursing.Vohra, R. McCollum, C (1994) fortnightly Review Pressure Sores British Medical Journal Vol. 309 p853 857Zulkowski, K (2003) defend your patients aging skin NursingReportsNuffield Institute for wellness NHS Centre for reviews and dissemination (1995) The prevention and treatment of pressure sores How usef ul are the measures for scoring peoples risk of developing a pressure sore? impressive Healthcare BulletinInternet resourceswww.helptheaged.org.ukwww.nelh.nhs.uk

Saturday, March 30, 2019

Study Of Symptom Management Strategies For Palliative Care Nursing Essay

Study Of Symptom trouble Strategies For P whollyiative C atomic number 18 Nursing EssayThis seek revolves around Claire, her symbols, her susceptibility to cope as tumesce as her husband Andrew. More precisely, it willing focus on strategies which foundation be employed for omen worry. rudimentary to any(prenominal) form of forethought strategy for Claire is a holistic estimate of her lot followed by computer programning, implementation and evaluation. This tail end often be realized by with the assistance of an judging model which argon all, to a broad extent, broadly based on this plan, just at one time each hindquarters collapse the problem from a different perspective. (Fawcett J 2005)If mavin first considers the dapple under the aegis of the Roper Logan Tierney model (Roper, Logan Tierney 2000), this model analyses the major bring downs of forbearing trouble in cost of solving the unhurrieds difficulties in adapting to and coping with nonchalant li ving, in particular if such coping is affected by either a physical disability or a disease operation. In terms of those with malignant disease, this is cl archean one of their major issues. Even a plan overview of the literature demonstrates that this model is extensively utilised and is possibly one of the close to widely accepted models of long-suffering management (Holland, Jenkins, Solomon Whittam 2003). single of the major failing of this model can be seen in the fact that it is not curiously hard-hitting in producing management strategies that can be set upive in transaction with patients who argon frankly manipulative or argon presenting with symptoms that atomic number 18 loosely psychological in nature. Whilst there is no suggestion that Claire is overtly manipulative, Johnson points to the fact that the management of psychological issues in moderating care is all bit as profound to a successful outcome, as dealing with ostensibly to a greater extent obvio us symptom features such as spite control (Johnson 1999.)Management of such patients can be better if the healthcare paid views such functional behaviour as a adaption process to the na habita role as keyd by the Roy adaption model. (Roy 1991) which seeks to describe patient behaviour in terms of the ability of the patient to adapt to any(prenominal) stimulus is generating the behaviour. In the geek of the patient with malignant disease, knowledge of a storage diagnosis is a potent stimulus for behaviour change. drill of this model allows for the nursing management decisions to respond to the evolving escape of the illness. This model can prove utilitarian insofar as it arranges why the patient tends to shew different behaviour patterns or coping strategies in response to their illness trajectory however it is of no real value in circumstances where a patient enters a period of overt denial of their terminal view. To use Claire as a case in point, it would appear that sh e is presenting her symptoms independently rather than as part of a spectrum associated with the uncreated pathophysiological cause. It is not un viridity, in such circumstances, for a person to present with an illness that is obviously terminal, scarce who insists on trying to continue their daily life pattern as if there was no immediate problem.To a degree, her expression of force at the fact that people bring in come out of the carpentry to bring down her is an demonstration of this fact. In contrast to the other two models discussed, the adaption model would describe this as a variety of cognitive distortion rather than overt denial. Clearly the patient cannot adapt to something that they are choosing not to overtly confront. (Steiger Lipson 2005) Claire appears to be somewhere between these two eventualities. Obviously she is aware of her diagnosis, but is expressing surprise that people would suddenly want to visit her. The Johnsons behavioural model would plausibly b e the intimately appropriate for this scenario as Claires behaviour pattern will almost certainly change as her symptomatology progresses. It follows that one has to take a view on the specific causation of the symptoms before one can take a rational view of the rise base persist any management strategies.Prior to the active consideration of the management of the symptoms, in the context of the behavioural model of patient management, one must input signal on the huge spectrum of skills and requirements that are currently expected of the modern professional nurse. Yura et al. state, in their authoritative overview composing, that to be functional and impressionive the nurse must understand the human condition from the viewpoint of the pathophysiology, the psychology, the human dynamic and socio-economic elements of the patients debut and disease trajectory . (Yura Walsh 2008). In Claires case, this is particularly appropriate.In terms of exploring the assure base for symp tom control. If one uses a biomedical symptom model, then the only significant symptoms are increasing sobbing, expectorate and dig. There is similarly an element of insomnia which leads to tiredness during the day. Other, harder to define symptoms, which nevertheless(prenominal) stem from the underlying pathophysiology, but are not generally described in biomedical terms, allow her looking of lack of control of her life, and, by inference there is the issue of her increasing dependence on her husband, Andrew.If one considers the picture base for symptomatic treatment, one should ideally first consider the four primary dimensions of palliative care as outlined by Cicely Saunders as they are particularly relevant to Claire, namely the physical, social, spiritual and psychological dimensions. (Saunders Regnard 1989). It follows that, although this essay will originally consider symptomatic treatment of shit, it must be understood that this should be delivered within the con text of the holistic assessment of the patient discussed in the early paragraphs of this essay. In the words of Valente et al., The patient, whole and entire, has relatives, friends, beliefs and previous run intos all of which must be integrated into management strategy. (Valente Saunders 2010 Pg 25)Breathlessness, as a specific symptom, is the result of a complex interaction between the physical body and the conscious mind. It is the most ordinarily reported symptom found in association with lung pubic louse and one of the most potentially distressing. (Knower, Dunagan, Adair Chin 2007). Breathlessness, unlike the pain generally associated with malignancies, is difficult to treat with any degree of success. The huge evidence aim IIb Higginson trial of lung crab louse patients clearly demonstrated that the prevalence of breathlessness rose wine as death approached and that treatment became progressively more ineffective (Higginson McCarthy 2008). In another large prospecti ve evidence train IIb study by Edmonds et al. it was found that although clinicians and patients two tend to associate lung cancer primarily with pain, breathlessness has a similar incidence to the extent that 85% patients with lung cancer friendshipd pain and 78% had significant breathlessness in the last social class of their life. (Edmonds, Karlsen, Khan Addington-Hall 2007)Treatment of breathlessness is particularly problematic. According to Knower et al. this is because the symptomatology is twain varied and multi grammatical constituential. It is not simply a matter of too inadequate tidal volume in the lungs, it is a multisystem disorder with many attainable subtle neurohormonal abnormalities and interactions in skeletal and respiratory muscle structure and function. In plus, the experience is extremely overcomeive with the feeling of breathlessness being special by not only previous experience of the symptom but also by path authoritys from a number of different areas within the central nervous system.Dorman et al. classify malignancy-associated breathlessness into four free radicals by their different contributive mechanisms.An increment in the sense of respiratory drive or lather to overcome an imposed load (e.g. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, COPD)An increase in the proportion of available respiratory muscle force indispensable for breathing, observed in neuromuscular weakness in which respiratory labour output and the sense of effort increase (e.g. paraneoplastic syndromes)An increase in the patients ventilatory requirements (e.g. anaemia, hypoxaemia)The contribution of higher cortical experience to the sensation. Memory and previous experience as well as fear and anxiety will all modify the sensation of breathlessness.(Dorman, Jolley, Abernethy, Currow et al. 2009)The evidence base for treatment shows that one effective mechanism is to treatment any underlying additive cause, such as anaemia, hypoxia or bronchospasm. (Ha tley, Laurence, Scott Thomas 2008)If one considers the physical elements first, a common factor in the experience of breathlessness in all these circumstances is anxiety. One common effective strategy to reduce the subjective sensation is for the patient to learn relaxation and calm breathing techniques and then to consciously use them whenever they feel anxious and breathless.Oxygen therapy is much useful in relieving the symptoms of breathlessness and the presence of a nasal catheter or mask is often assure for the patient. The main evidence base for symptomatic control however, comes from the use of the opioid and benzodiazepine concourse of medications.Opiates have by far the strongest evidence base with the evidence take aim Ib paper by Pharo et al. clearly demonstrating the reduction of twain subjective and objective measurements of breathlessness in patients with lung cancer. (Pharo Zhou 2005). The authors point out that the side effect of opiates, as a class, must b e carefully weighed against their probable clinical benefits. Careful examination of the evidence base keep backing benzodiazepine use shows that it is less secure. Some authors (viz. Wotton 2004) reporting that they have reduced the sensation of dyspnoea in patients, the majority of randomize controlled trials (viz. Maher, Selecky, Harrod Benditt 2010,) have not been able to demonstrate any convincing benefit whilst showing significant side effects. They are also known to decrease respiratory drive and compromise lung function, worsening proceeding valuation reserve. ( Franco-Bronson 2006). On balance, the evidence base does not project the use of the benzodiazepine group for the relief of breathlessness in malignant disease.Anxiety and depression, both(prenominal) common associations of malignant disease, are commonly associated with increased perceptions of breathlessness. There is a unquestionable evidence base to show that aggressive treatment of both can produce signif icant rectifyment in subjective assessments of the symptom. Treatment of these conditions are complex and specialised and therefore will not be considered in detail. Kunik et al. have demonstrated in an evidence level IIa study that both anxiolytics (buspirone ) and psychological relaxation techniques are capable of producing significant decreases in levels of both anxiety and dyspnoea, as well as improved exercise tolerance among breathless patients. (Kunik, Azzam, Souchek, Cully, Wray, Krishnan, et al. 2007)In the interests of providing a comprehensive and balanced argument, note should be taken of the recent evidence level IIa paper by Lewith et al. which tell the positive, but not statistically significant effect of acupuncture on patients suffering from breathlessness. It should also be noted that these were patients with breathlessness as an all-cause symptom rather than specifically from malignant disease. (Lewith, Prescott Davis 2006)The evidence base relating to treatmen t of cough, a common symptom in lung cancer. It is generally taken to indicate troth of the airways rather than the lung parenchyma, primarily because of the location of cough receptors.Kvale published a particularly helpful Medline review in 2008 which explored the evidence base for treatment options. (Kvale 2008). The paper itself is both extensive and comprehensive. Confining the discussion to the relevant portions of the paper shows that both surgery and radiotherapy (where appropriate) are both effective in trim down troublesome cough symptoms. A patient undergoing chemotherapy is less likely to have their cough symptoms reduced.There is a substantial evidence base to support the view that the use of inhaled bronchodilators and corticosteroids can be useful, but not in all cases.Specific antitussive centrally acting drugs that have been subjected to randomised controlled trials involve codeine, hydrocodone, and dextromethorphan. Each of these has a strong supporting evidence base and lower limit side effects. Dihydrocodeine has been specifically noted as having the dual purpose of both pain relief and cough suppression. (Homsi, Walsh, Nelson 2001). The opiate group in general, in addition to relieving pain and breathlessness are also strongly active in cough suppression.The authors make the point that many trials have noted the cough suppression effect of placebos in randomised controlled trials. This has not only the effect of adding an element of bias into the results, but also offers a line in management of cough in resistant cases.Fatigue is a common symptom associated with malignancies and certainly with lung cancer. This latter association is postulated to be related to the levels of chronic hypoxia in the later stages of the disease. (Higginson, McCarthy 2008)The Dagnelie et al. study is particularly useful in this approve as it considered the effect of travail on the attribute of life of patients with lung cancer and found that it has clear statistical associations with the stage of the disease process, the degree of support that the patient has and also the mental state of the patient. (Dagnelie, Pijls-Johannesn, Lambin Beijer 2007). They found that those patients who had good support networks, and who were not depressed and who were able to maintain a good level of physical activity were the ones who were least likely to report significant levels of fatigue. A substantive literature search has failed to reveal any good quality trials which support these findings from a therapeutic perspective but intuitively, one ability suggest that including the maintenance of a support network and direct assessment for depressive symptoms into a holistic management plan is likely to reduce levels of fatigue experienced by the patient.In passing, one can consider the truly recent Breitbart study which looked at the use of psycho stimulants in cases of malignancy-related fatigue and found promising results from Modafinil, which is a new category of psychostimulant commonly referred to as wakefulness-promoting agent in the literature. It appears to be well tolerated and with few side effects. The results are too new to have yet been replicated with a larger randomised controlled trial and the authors also point to a large possible placebo effect in their trial. In these circumstances, the evidence base should perhaps be considered unproved until further evidence emerges. (Breitbart Alici 2010)The case study makes bring up to passing reference to Andrew, Claires fellow, who retired two classs agone and is clearly the main carer in this scenario. He does the shopping, cooking and various other domestic duties for Clare. Although we are told that this makes him feel useful the experienced and empathetic healthcare professional should be aware that the levels of recondite depression in cancer-afflicted patients spouses is extremely high. (Kim, Duberstein, Sorensen Larson 2005)It has commonly been found to be the case that as the focus of care and hitch is generally targeted towards the patient, the carers, and particularly the spouses, do not have their use ups either explored, considered or addressed. (Braun, Mikulincer, Rydall, Walsh Rodin 2007)It is part of the holistic assessment of the patients occurrence that the carers should be actively considered and managed as actively as the patient. This has the direct effect not only of trying to optimise the overall levels of care for the patient, but also promoting the spoken exchange of information, thoughts and feelings which are very likely not to be addressed of recognised, if not explicitly facilitated. (Kim, Schulz carver 2007)The evidence base for these interventions is not strong. There is a considerable evidence base, from a large number of qualitative studies, which underlines the fact that spouses and carers, if supported, can improve the quality of life for the patient. It also appears to be the case that spiritual well being of the patient is improved if spouses and carers are encouraged and facilitated to verbalise about the situation, especially impending death, which is often regarded as a taboo subject in a household with a patient with a malignancy. soft studies certainly strengthen the evidence base, but, in terms of guidelines and management strategies, they are generally not seen as being as robust as quantitative studies. (Gomm Davies 2008)In conclusion, the evidence base to devise a management strategy for Claire is dependent primarily on the mechanisms used to define her symptom base as well as her circumstances. It appears likely that Claire is adapting to her illness trajectory with a minimum of cognitive distortion, and is taking a rather fatalist view of her situation. Management should clearly be primarily supportive, both of her and her spouse. The evidence base for symptom control is fairly strong. Pain is not a feature at the moment. Breathlessness could be tackled, ini tially by the abetment of anxiety-relieving behaviours and possibly by small doses of opiods. Cough can be helped by the use of dihydrocodeine if it is troublesome and fatigue needs careful evaluation to determine whether there is any depressive or psychological factors which are either primary of additive to the symptomatology.Claire may also need to be given licence to rest during the day and be told to pace herself with physical activity so that her fatigue is not such a problem for her.Healthcare professionals need to consider their interventions with the family very carefully. Claire perceives that they come out of the woodwork, which suggests that they are an unwelcome reminder of the fact that they are only there because she has a serious and at last terminal illness. Claire may need to be encouraged to talk and carry on this issue as the family may find it difficult if they are not welcomed, and Claire may need to be helped to confront the reality of her situation more d irectly.Andrew must not be overlooked when constructing a management strategy for this situation. It is a common finding for healthcare professionals to perceive that the spouse is being strong, but this may be a faade for their partner. It is a useful strategy for the healthcare professional to make time to talk to Andrew on his own so that he can have the prospect to raise issues that he may be unclear about. It may be that he does not know what to expect and is uncertain of the best way of handling the situation. Although possibly premature at the moment, part of the management plan should be to discuss how Andrew is going to approach a worsening situation.An essay such as this can only realistically consider the situation from a general approach. It is clearly the case that every strategy and intervention should be considered on the basis of a holstic assessment of the individual and the management tailored directly to the specific circumstances of the individual.Appendix I mis cellany of evidence levelsIa endorse obtained from meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.Ib demonstrate obtained from at least one randomised controlled trial.IIaEvidence obtained from at least one well-designed controlled study without randomisation.IIbEvidence obtained from at least one other type of well-designed quasi-experimental study.IIIEvidence obtained from well-designed non-experimental descriptive studies, such as comparative studies, correlation studies and case studies.IVEvidence obtained from expert committee reports or opinions and/or clinical experience of respected authorities.(SIGN 2001)Appendix IICase DetailsClares general practician has just referred her to the community palliative care service. Clare is a 65 year old woman, with lung cancer, an eventually fatal condition. She lives with her husband Andrew in their family home. Her two fully grown children are married and live interstate.Clare suffers from breathlessness, cough and fatigue. She gets dist ressed by her unfitness to catch her breath. Sometimes she has trouble sleeping at night and is frequently sleepy during the day. Clare says she doesnt have many strategies to help her manage her symptoms. She views her illness as a challenge as it impacts on what she can do and she doesnt feel in control of her life.Clare tells you that personal relationships are more meaningful for her now and she misses seeing her children, even though she keeps in frequent phone contact. She is impress by the number of people who have come out of the woodwork and have come to visit her at home.Andrew retired two years ago so is able to do the shopping, cooking and other domestic duties for him and Clare. He says this makes him feel useful and its easier for him to do things than to talk about things. Andrew asks you if there is anything more he can do to help Clare.

Friday, March 29, 2019

Modernist Dogma That Form Follows Function

Modernist Dogma That normal Follows give wayThe object lens of this thesis is to discuss the modernist principle random variable checks bl abrogate. A intelligent computer decoratorure is meant to create a cleanse figure discloseal externalise in course of life demeanor, am usagement, work, study, and so on. Hence, wholly t h sensationnessst-to-god(prenominal) practice decisions at the purporterural aim should be made within the context of the breakal, ergonomic, and brotherly requirements of the g e genuinelyplacening body macrocosm inventi singled, which is a commandment that equ whollyy to organize catchs move. The theory of radiation diagram follows puzzle out could be implicated to phylogenesis, economics, burnish impost, and esthetic. They be closely conjugate with con course of actionity, to go una give c ar visual effect and cases.From the past to the grant, engineer follows guide has been struggle ceaselessly. Some argue tha t abidance follows theatrical role uni put to work no forward- brassingorthy national decorator Louis Sullivan believed that score ever follows crop, save if some(a) of deal do non think so. Of course, issues atomic number 18 bound to micturate positives and negatives. So, when plurality demonstration ground level follows run away some pile would be say wherefore non control follows frame. The answer of the modernist philosophy of protrude was beyond solely(a) motion to say yes. In this rule dictum seems pass offle nigh reek more(prenominal)(prenominal)over take a closer vox populi at it and it index be keep up problematic. Looking at present phase of decoratorure, thither is complete evidence that sound follows machinate, for without an visualizeing of form. This presumes that it was owned by commonalty and rattling we en chassisle escape from tradition principle, form follows maneuver. In short, form and function is non in a ha ppy marriage yet in bionomics, it does work.Ecology became hot issue in current forge. The discussion ecology is often mis apply that it is more on milieual studies, exactly stringently to say, at that place be allay unlike. The easy way to formu of late that ecology is concerned with sustainability, surroundingsal wittingness, colour, vivid, and radical approaches to prepargon a anatomy radical from these requirements and from the characteristics of the site. And taking almost diachronic grammatical saying blends with reuse materials. occasion it to keep open doddering twists character elements with waste materials which bear be restoring the hea whereforeal meanings.Hence, the aim and objective of this language is to create a moot form follows function or function follows form in disposition to evidence form follows function is workable than opposite theory in this aestheticalal information early conjunction. Besides, the objective is to assess future(a)(a) direction and the impetus toward an ecologic approach to go nowa twenty-four hourss.The study go out undertake of 3 subroutines of research which is the primary, secondary and thirdly data sources. These 3 researches for this dissertation give way a great help. Primarily sources would be observed how the tradition dogma displace be circulated for so long in this coming into court orientated society and what ar the main debates that it was implicated? To identifies the themes through victimization, economics, and socialisation tradition. Moreover, the thesis leave alone look at use of reuse materials to furnish historic build upions in ball club to enhance sustainable. Secondary, the research would be through with(p) by respondents through survey questions. The aim of this survey is to neck comprehension and bankers acceptance of Malaysians towards ecological architectures. The physical objected community is different ages and occupations of M alaysians. Thirdly sources and illustrations would be effected from research base from books, internet and in the buffspapers in delimitate of battle to die hard a more impersonal answer and solution.Chapter 2Functions do they precede forms? radiation diagram follows function or function follows form vertical as fearful and bombard. Which come first? This is depended on how we cigarette comp be between both of it. unspoiled like frame principle, form follows function whoremaster be sustain from hundreds of years of experience with successful construction sees. The excogitation principle is go along to use until nowa daytimelights, it certainly has its rationale. exercise has to be feature with the function, which is non optionally to decide on it. In tradition principle, the function of the create p wile for why wad use the build drives the form.But at the comparable beat its the formal agrees of surroundings, humor, construct materials and different forces that begin to contrive how the aspiration reflects its users. Other train of diorama is the vision, which intromits many factors for instance, the multiple functions, the stakeholders, the tar devil users and is inherently long term.Besides, function leads the occasion to reduce d give birth the options and allow for a beginning point to help them more good to boom their catch. If the form does non bind with the function then the function cogency end up being not usable. Function leads form in order to archive its aim the form implys function too. division without function is in effect(p) a pretty piece of plain stitch paper, no meaning. This is most direct way to march that it is workable.Whoever manageing the buildings doubtless has a mind to satisfy your functional needs. Further, the headinger probably mean the boilers suit form of the buildings to fit their train and prearrange that purpose aesthetically. That signify that function is somethin g that precedes the form that it exists independently of form that it is there in the lead form takes shape. resume of phylogenesisTurn back to the question somewhat first bellyacher or egg. To philosophers, the question somewhat the first chicken or egg withal brings out the questions of how life and the universe in popular began. If we overlook all these, in force(p) focus on the view of evolutionism, we put each form has a purpose to evolve, form follows function and evolution is in reality work hands in hands.In the universal view of evolution by natural selection, in which refreshing variations in the environment and time, function always follows form. bonny like Louis Sullivan, an America architect who bleak on elementary principle form follows function. In 1896, in Sullivans article The large office building artistically attracted, he states thatIt is the pervading law of all things organic and inorganic, of all things physical and metaphysical, of all thi ngs merciful and all things superhuman, of all original manifestations of the head, of the heart, of the soul, that the life is recognizable in its talkion, that form ever follows function. This is the law.From his flora we could go his thinking was deeply influenced by Darwin. In Darwins theory of evolution in natural selection, e rattling form in a do or animal has a purpose in that species survival in order to economy of a functional advantage that enables a species to moderate do disclose in the wild. therefore, all the faultily species would be eliminated gradually over time. hither Sullivan (1896) quotes thatIn nature, all shapes show up the inner life, the native quality, of the animal, tree bird, fish, that they present to us they ar so characteristic, so recognizable, that we say, simply, it is natural it should be so.So that, form follows function is pre-determinates, every unrivalled can not arbitrarily to heighten it. If the dogma breaking, the world woul d be standstill, can not evolve into what we atomic number 18 sightedness now. For instance with evolution, form does not follow function. Rabbits do not pose their ears to fetch hourlong in order to avoid the foeman in the wild. Moreover, the form of a building moldiness be a bit of its purpose. If no form follows function, the detonator of the family would not be gable wall type in order to avoid accumulation of irrigate when it was raining. This description coming into courted Darwins theory leading us with evolution it is to a fault the gondola carapace that form follows function.Beauty controlled by beThe evolution of time creates different kind of decorative styles window dressing storage field of operationss (see fig. 1), which were emerged from Neoclassical to Bauhaus in Malaysia. In the late 1910 the two dictum of form follows function and ornament is a law-breaking were widely used by the Bauhauss traffic patterners. They disseminated rationality, funct ionality, simplify forms, and mass- crossingion. In short, form is prevail by damage. Just as the facade of Malaysias shop theatres are progressively simplistic because of cost impact.Fig.1 An evolution of shop theater of operations from eighteenth to nineteenth century. There is not gruelling to guide hold the shop syndicates styles would be make changed by the time, unnecessary decoration was avoid because of cost-effective.The decoration of facade is base on the period of the time. The decoration styles which typified the facades of Malaysian shop kinsfolk constructed up to 1920s. As the like time the construction of shop houses r from each oneed its vertex during the prophylactic boom until World War 2 occurred. After that the globular parsimony started to tidy sumturn until the war ends. Hence, the form of shop house started to evolve to transparent lines at that time. It was by the former of impact of cost. Furthermore, the previous shop houses are nothing a good deal function at all unless aesthetic, does not accord with design principle. So, unnecessary decorations were weeded out by time. geometrical shapes and simplified lines were replaced the previous period style. In the 1960s and 1970s, shop houses once again became the common building, its form was to continue along similar lines, simple and austere. nought is superfluous.In the 1980s, there were insufficient quadriceps femoriss to provide to urban Malaysians because of the impact healthful-situated car parks. close of the shop houses were replaced by mellow rise buildings in order to comp allowe the surrounded road and parking study. The form has to follow the function therefore unnecessary decorations charter been omitted. And this is what we are seen now.Admittedly, a majority of forms were controlled by cost especially in Malaysia. agree to the result of survey, near 50 per cent of the sight allow be premised on the wrong of design. Besides, result of th e survey shows that there are most 77 per cent of people is unwilling to pay more money to their house design because they mainly believe that good design can also fall in low-cost. That is prove that it is line with Bauhauss purpose.View of cultureArchitectural culture is very grave to us. Just like the ancestors put different protect on forms. And this value will heavily depend on ethnic horizon and conventions. That way culture that reflects peoples life and their use of objects need to be comprised in the form. And the form of a building must show the culture or business birth of its life. If not, our culture will be bogged down or disappear. Generations do not know what ancestors left it to them and what the meaning behind. This can be present by the example of conventional house in Sabah. There is a very good example to express Malaysias culture.The traditional houses of Sabah reflect not only the beauty of traditional architecture, entirely also incorporates va rious cultural earningslings of the ethnic groups of Sabah that can be appreciated by all extensions as well as visitors to the state. Moreover, the houses show the diverse ways in which people have adapted to their environment, lifestyle, ritual, and beliefs. Natives of Sabah only can adapt to the environment in order to survive in this place. They grab whatever their needs from ring subject area at the place that they are living. In the opposite words, their residences will follow their lifestyle to make a change accordingly. That is what has mentioned before, form follows function.The houses were reinforced by the various ethnic groups themselves to ensure quality and authenticity of each of these houses. They also reflect the s b messiness outs of the local people in the past in utilizing a snuff it building materials from their environment. The site of a houses organization may be influenced by the sun and the river a fresh supply of water.Longhouse represents endemical people of Sabah ar unity and harmony. There are various types long houses in Sabah. The Rungus Longhouse (see fig. 2) is one of them. The houses are not located on very postgraduate stilts to fight they are usually only having around three to fin feet higher(prenominal) up the ground. The capital is low, and in fore severalise on the house acts like a sunshade, keeping the house cool sluice during the hottest part of the day time. The existed doors of longhouses have 75. Now they rarely more than 10 doors, along the chip in corridor that has an marvellous platform of split bamboo. The house is framed by satellite slanting walls of wide- quadricepsd shores. This provides fresh air circulation and a comfortable sitting area for work, quiet and socializing. The materials of construct were taken from surrounding area where they could get to. For instance, their methods of construction are interlocking and lash with strips of rattan or woods because of voiceless to get a sc rew in their surrounding area.Fig. 2 Rungus longhouses combined with the anatomical social organisation of climate, environment, materials, and technology. So, the forms of the house is follows their lifestyle and environment.Indigenous people of Sabah are used to live as a group. Each increase in the longhouses are emphasizes its space organization reveals the close relationship between a family and the longhouse community. A longhouse is designed to private spaces for each family as well as open space for the square community. The Rungus longhouses consist of several family apartments at the rear of t house and a communal veranda at the front. Each sulap contains an earthen open fireplace (rapuan) and a stoping area for a couple and their unwedded daughters boys and guests sleep at veranda (saloh). Furthermore, dance platform (lansaran) is built in a central area on the saloh. It is used for festival and in which the whole community participates in singing and dancing. That means the space mean of the house is follows our lifestyle and habit.In the other words, according the survey find out a large proportion of people care closely ergonomics. viz. underframe follows function is absolutely necessarily in design.Fig. 3 The Rungus house open plan construct.On the other words, there are reflected how Sabahs indigenous people are versatile. The house was tie in a traditional life-style with the advancement of modern ideas, and keep down antique skills, in this period of rapid development. Longhouse tycoon exist because they will make changes by the environment to develop. In other words, their houses were built along with their requirements.Chapter 3why not function follows form?The opposites view is that it is merely a functionalist approach. And we asseverate dogma- form follows function might privation aesthetic appeal. The aspect of art always provides more than one option. Form follows function tended to kill the division of art in designs. sluice they counted fundamental principle in design is disturbingIf does not following the principle of form follows function then a tall building should locate in all over and all has the same, there is no role except aesthetic. That means a high rise building in capital of Red China should look like other one in Taiwan, differently from the form only. Just as three famous modern architects of 20th century- Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier, and crude(a) Lloyd Wright, whom are stand to the principle. They all had their own particularly styles to use in different building materials to interpret function. Mies used poise and glass, Corbu used concrete, and discourteous punctuate wood or concrete block. If ignores issues of culture, climate, technology, building material, all these about the function, and just as heavy on the style and optences of the architect. either famous buildings should in a jumbled situation or one day you might live in an aesthetically house which made b y paper. That significance that functions is driving the form.Of course, architecture has always looked for the way to transcend its own history. modern-day architecture its not the exception but it has lost one of its basic principles for good as topic bowlful, Beijing, which tour innovative in plan, is gorgeously poor for its function. In the other words, the innovative concept that designer express to blot out up functionality of the sphere should have.Beijing National Stadium as known as the Birds dwell, which was designed by Swiss architecture cockeyed Herzog HYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herzog__de_MeuronHYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herzog__de_Meuron de Meuron . The scene of action was designed for use throughout the 2008 Summer Olympics and Paralympics. The concept of the stadium is based on three notions which are technology, get-up-and-go conservation, and cultural conversation. It all looks perfectly in line with the concept of nowadays buildi ng design but it lost its original aims when the designer has decided to antecedence of sculpturesque form giving over the stadium needs of function.Birds snuggle design emphasis novelty and technology, so they are used a lot of saucily technology and materials. Hence, they used Q460 steel to construct the stadium. It seems a great design but it is fail. From the figure 4, we find the sporting of rejoice on the stadium. It has an amazing night view. Surprisingly, the first figure and the second is a in good order contrast. During the day time, the audiences can not watch the match because there is duskiness on all sitesFig. 4 The night view of Beijing National Stadium, China.Fig. 5 The audiences can not focus on the show because the wickedness of the stadium is being in a disordered condition during the day time.Therefore, they installed double translucent membrane at the top of the organise to bring in the problem. The membranes got 30 percent of light permission only. As the same time, it is showed the interior of stadium would be not enough light condescension they are used solar power generation placement. In the suit of verve conservation, the designer did not much to think over the climate of Beijing. There are four seasons but the solar power generation system is not work at the season or time that without sunlight, they still need to use electricity to maintain the brightness of the stadium. It does not birth dynamism conservation and environment friendly points. concord to the Chinas Xin humming news show Agency reported, the person in charge of the stadium indicated that the mixed social structure of the stadium caused maintenance cost up to 6,000 million dollars (RMB) per year. It is difficult to obtain a profit after Olympic ceremony. And this important project for the Olympics had been invested sevensome billion dollars, just because of alleged new technology. That is not in line with cost effective.On the other hand, the desig ner had not considered in the design of the stadium clearly in the construction stage, suddenly proposed the Birds Nest crownwork problems. According to the assistant of Mayor said that the Birds Nest is a steel structure, it is extremely difficult to construct. The original design has a roof but the load of the roof close to the limit. It is very dangerous for safeguard issues. So, the dependable advised to cancel the original roof. In the new design, the roof of the stadium was covering also but can not whole cover up whole stadium. That means it would be leaking.In addition, the stadiums design did not show the Chinese spirit. This is a good opportunity for Chinese, to let foreigners to understand their country culture. But they did not it is a very too bad thing. All these problems mentioned before, it is sufficient evidence to proves the designer do not consider functionality, he just keen on his novelty and newness he cherished to flush it the important of the functiona l. So, if function follows form might occur when functionality is ignored. This also prove that function always precede form.Chapter 44.0 Forms in the future look likePeople are beginning to realize grandeur of environmental protection, starting to follow the footstep of jet. So, the global future will be colour architectures trend. An ecological lifestyle involves conscious rising about the relationship between using up today and the conditions for future generation. Ecological development requires a balance between mankinds conception, the environment and the available recourses.Urban ecologist and rootage of last the Century Facing Climate Chaos and other orbiculate Challenges, Herbert Girardet quotes that fleeceable buildings are reservation giant strides now because of public debate and new technology. Everyone may want to live a modern lifestyle but we know we cannot continue wrecking the planet. We need to build houses that dont need an outside energy supply.Hence, e cology thinking must be natural innate reflex for the architect of the future. And this was a response to the changing climate which demanded new buildings of change magnitude cut energy consumption and solid waste problems. The architect whole kit and boodle on the basis of a new order where the building as a whole meets the requirements and challenges of an ecological future measures and novelty materials in an aesthetic and social program. And that is what thesis had mentioned before- form follows function. In despite of future or the past, we all can not escape from the rule.4.1 Form follows kibibyte ballpark design, as know as ecological design, uses design to include economic, social and ecological sustainability. Besides verdure building is also environment conscious design solutions where a sustainable form and function. Basically, super C buildings concept is based on functional also. Mostly people concentrated on construct and appearance of the green building, neglect ing material is also an important part in a building. It reminds people about recycling to save the environment. verdancy design is sustainable design as it is sustained by materials that can be reprocessd.The concept of sustainable building unifies multifarious of strategies during the process of building projects. The use of green building materials and products are very widely, which represents an important part in strategy at the design of a building. On the obstinate, aesthetic has become the secondary. It is designed for constrain the solid waste problems, cut energy consumption in manufacturing, impact of the built environment on human health and save on natural resource use.4.2 Historic building blends with recycle materialsMost of the historic or old buildings emphasize teeming and prodigal decoration especially European architecture which emerged from Neoclassical. Decorative style design more tends to decoration and aesthetic, neglect a building need and caused rad dled spaces. But old building does not mean it is unprofitable. By reason of older building can be refurbish and revivify so that they can continue to function as urban elements to obtain the goals of green building. Besides devising good use of old building can make environment sense, using and enhancing what already have.Green building is not just saving energy or else. It is also using product made from recycle material when renovating or constructing a new building. Just as Malaysia has a lot of heritage buildings also, but heritage buildings conservation is not entirely commercially viable It requires on the contrary a skillfully management and maintenance fee. So, why not get them into green elements while retaining their historic character? Green inspection and repairs included reduce energy consumption and durability of older and heritage buildings. Respectful redevelopment in order to reduce the operating energy of a building, making building restoration one of the most direct climate actions to express environment protection. This chapter will look at strategies for renovation while remain their culture and heritage character in order to archive forms and function to be one.Renovation is a brilliant thing especially the architect for the renovation of an old building is taken into all the important views that are peculiarly for the renovation of an old building. Nevertheless there is something different. Just as historic city, George Town being listed as Cultural WorldHYPERLINK http//whc.unesco.org/ Heritage Sites as know as UNESCO. Of course, most of buildings in George Town have to renovation, just as juicy accost Pulau Pinang (see Fig.6 7). Although the governments are trying to remained all the forms as proportion as possible, it still have different. By the reason of all the restitute materials are new. They are lack of the use of recycle materials to retrofits. Most of the people like to use something new but they forget the old things even more value than new. These valuable materials are not easily copied by the new materials. Especially some of materials or decoration has no longer reproduction, and recycle material can be any help.Fig. 6 graduate(prenominal) Court before renovation in George Town,Fig. 7 High Court after renovation in George Town.Besides that, the one more important thing that we have to admit is restoration an old building with recycle materials for all of us are still pretty new and it is not accepted by the most. People still full of worries about it. According to the survey, a significant number of people can accept renovation but they generally felt that the maintenance costs of old buildings will be very expensive. As a matter of fact, they are lack of knowledge and understanding of recycle and renovate. Although some of the green materials cost higher than old building, there are still many more green materials cost still less than the standard. These green materials have better designs for a new generation of environmentally friendly products that are cost saving to produce. Many more of innovations today are coming from green manufacturers. Furthermore, recycle building materials lies in diminishing the need for industry to make a new product. All of the energy that is spent in manufacturing and transporting something can be saved.The main reason to use recycle building materials are some of the old building materials still preserved their character elements, these can be restore the cultural meanings. It can be preserve their individuation while enhance functionality. On the other hand, materials usage is marry up with structure of the building. And it is have a great relationship with ergonomics. That means materials are one of the function as well It is what the thesis mention before that forms and functions can be one.Chapter 55.0 ConclusionWhatever, we cant escape from tradition. To come across the best(p) of both worlds are very difficult. The de bate about form and function is a vexed question. Some debate that form follows function, others, like architect Frank Lloyd Wright believed that form and function are one. However, in modern society there is sufficient evidence that function follows form, for without an understanding of form. Even so, there are some cases when form and function are one in order to get a balance. That is what we are inclined to green architectures.According to the result of survey, a proportion of people care about environment friendly but a significant number of peoples houses are not ecological sustainable house. Even so they are gainful the fee for the home design, they would not design home as sustainable house. not because of excluded, just because they are generally thought that cost of the house design they cant afford and worry about the maintenance of the house.From other point of view, more than half the numbers of people are dissatisfied towards their house designs. That means Malaysia s architectures do not meet peoples expectation in its design criterion. It just only designs All the things consider that ecological design is accepted by Malaysian but they do not know much in it. By the reason of around 54% of the people prefer practicality rather than appearance. That imply form follows function is workable but it is a pity to say that sometimes forms were controlled by cost, natural selection, and culture. scalelike look at the notion of function and the dogma form follows function, express why this impression proved to be so important. By the reason of the functionalist notion of function serves as guide to design the form. It guides the designer to narrow down the options and provide a starting point. The form now has a purpose or duty, if you will, of projecting the function that lies within. Just as a project has a problem to be solved rather than just making it look pretty is the great challenge. Function needs form in order to get a balance, it work as h and in hand. So, if an object has to present a perfect function, its design must be support that function. And continue to repeat again and again Form follows function. Form follows function.Modernist Dogma That Form Follows FunctionModernist Dogma That Form Follows FunctionThe aim of this thesis is to discuss the modernist dogma form follows function. A good architecture is meant to create a better functional design in course of lifestyle, amusement, work, study, and so on. Hence, all design decisions at the architectural level should be made within the context of the functional, ergonomic, and social requirements of the system being designed, which is a principle that equally to form follows function. The theory of form follows function could be implicated to evolution, economics, culture tradition, and aesthetic. They are closely linked with form, to produce different visual effect and results.From the past to the present, form follows function has been debate ceaselessly. Some a rgue that form follows function like famous architect Louis Sullivan believed that form ever follows function, but some of people do not think so. Of course, issues are bound to have positives and negatives. So, when people say form follows function some people would be say why not function follows form. The answer of the modernist philosophy of design was beyond all doubt to say yes. In this design dictum seems like good sense but take a closer look at it and it might become problematic. Looking at present form of architecture, there is enough evidence that function follows form, for without an understanding of form. This presumes that it was accepted by public and actually we can escape from tradition principle, form follows function. In short, form and function is not in a happy marriage but in ecology, it does work.Ecology became hot issue in current design. The word ecology is often misused that it is more on environmental studies, but strictly to say, there are still different . The easy way to explain that ecology is concerned with sustainability, environmental consciousness, green, natural, and organic approaches to evolve a design solution from these requirements and from the characteristics of the site. And taking about historic building blends with recycle materials. Use it to preserve old buildings character elements with waste materials which can be restoring the cultural meanings.Hence, the aim and objective of this dissertation is to create a debate form follows function or function follows form in order to evidence form follows function is workable than opposite theory in this aesthetic perception first society. Besides, the objective is to assess future direction and the movement toward an ecological approach to building nowadays.The study will undertake of 3 move of research which is the primary, secondary and thirdly data sources. These 3 researches for this dissertation have a great help. Primarily sources would be observed how the traditio n dogma can be circulated for so long in this appearance oriented society and what are the main reasons that it was implicated? To identifies the themes through evolution, economics, and culture tradition. Moreover, the thesis will look at use of recycle materials to retrofit historic buildings in order to enhance sustainable. Secondary, the research would be done by respondents through survey questions. The aim of this survey is to know perception and acceptance of Malaysians towards ecological architectures. The targeted community is different ages and occupations of Malaysians. Thirdly sources and illustrations would be completed from research based from books, internet and newspapers in order to obtain a more impersonal answer and solution.Chapter 2Functions do they precede forms?Form follows function or function follows form just as chicken and egg. Which come first? This is depended on how we can compare between two of it. Just like design principle, form follows function can be confirmed from hundreds of years of experience with successful building projects. The design principle is continued to use until nowadays, it certainly has its rationale.Form has to be combined with the function, which is not optionally to decide on it. In tradition principle, the function of the building purpose for why people use the building drives the form.But at the same time its the formal conditions of environment, climate, building materials and other forces that begin to propose how the purpose reflects its users. Other point of view is the vision, which includes many factors for instance, the multiple functions, the stakeholders, the target users and is inherently long term.Besides, function leads the designer to narrow down the options and provide a beginning point to help them more easily to complete their project. If the form does not bind with the function then the function might end up being not usable. Function needs form in order to archive its aim the form needs function too. Form without function is just a pretty piece of plain paper, no meaning. This is most direct way to prove that it is workable.Whoever designed the buildings undoubtedly has a mind to satisfy your functional needs. Further, the designer probably intended the overall form of the buildings to fit their purpose and prearrange that purpose aesthetically. That imply that function is something that precedes the form that it exists independently of form that it is there before form takes shape.View of evolutionTurn back to the question about first chicken or egg. To philosophers, the question about the first chicken or egg also brings out the questions of how life and the universe in general began. If we ignore all these, just focus on the view of evolutionism, we found every form has a purpose to evolve, form follows function and evolution is actually work hands in hands.In the universal view of evolution by natural selection, in which new variations in the environment and t ime, function always follows form. Just like Louis Sullivan, an America architect who keen on basic principle form follows function. In 1896, in Sullivans article The tall office building artistically considered, he states thatIt is the pervading law of all things organic and inorganic, of all things physical and metaphysical, of all things human and all things superhuman, of all true manifestations of the head, of the heart, of the soul, that the life is recognizable in its expression, that form ever follows function. This is the law.From his works we could know his thinking was deeply influenced by Darwin. In Darwins theory of evolution in natural selection, every form in a plant or animal has a purpose in that species survival in order to conservation of a functional advantage that enables a species to compete better in the wild. Therefore, all the faultily species would be eliminated gradually over time. Here Sullivan (1896) quotes thatIn nature, all shapes express the inner lif e, the native quality, of the animal, tree bird, fish, that they present to us they are so characteristic, so recognizable, that we say, simply, it is natural it should be so.So that, form follows function is pre-determinates, everyone can not arbitrarily to change it. If the dogma breaking, the world would be standstill, can not evolve into what we are seeing now. For instance with evolution, form does not follow function. Rabbits do not develop their ears to become longer in order to avoid the enemy in the wild. Moreover, the form of a building must be a consequence of its purpose. If no form follows function, the roof of the house would not be gable type in order to avoid accumulation of water when it was raining. This statement showed Darwins theory leading us with evolution it is also the case that form follows function.Beauty controlled by costThe evolution of time creates different kind of decorative styles facade shop houses (see fig. 1), which were emerged from Neoclassical to Bauhaus in Malaysia. In the late 1910 the two dictum of form follows function and ornament is a crime were widely used by the Bauhauss designers. They disseminated rationality, functionality, simplified forms, and mass-production. In short, form is dominated by cost. Just as the facade of Malaysias shop houses are increasingly simplistic because of cost impact.Fig.1 An evolution of shop house from 18th to 19th century. There is not difficult to find the shop houses styles would be make changed by the time, unnecessary decoration was avoid because of cost-effective.The decoration of facade is based on the period of the time. The decoration styles which typified the facades of Malaysian shop house constructed up to 1920s. As the same time the construction of shop houses reached its apex during the rubber boom until World War 2 occurred. After that the global economy started to downturn until the war ends. Hence, the form of shop house started to evolve to simple lines at that time . It was by the reason of impact of cost. Furthermore, the previous shop houses are nothing much function at all except aesthetic, does not accord with design principle. So, unnecessary decorations were weeded out by time. Geometrical shapes and simplified lines were replaced the previous period style. In the 1960s and 1970s, shop houses again became the common building, its form was to continue along similar lines, simple and austere. Nothing is superfluous.In the 1980s, there were insufficient spaces to provide to urban Malaysians because of the impact booming car parks. Most of the shop houses were replaced by high rise buildings in order to complete the surrounded road and parking area. The form has to follow the function therefore unnecessary decorations have been omitted. And this is what we are seen now.Admittedly, a majority of forms were controlled by cost especially in Malaysia. According to the result of survey, about 50 per cent of the people will be premised on the pric e of design. Besides, result of the survey shows that there are about 77 per cent of people is unwilling to pay more money to their house design because they generally believe that good design can also have low-cost. That is proved that it is line with Bauhauss purpose.View of cultureArchitectural culture is very important to us. Just like the ancestors put different value on forms. And this value will heavily depend on cultural perspective and conventions. That means culture that reflects peoples life and their use of objects need to be comprised in the form. And the form of a building must show the culture or story of its life. If not, our culture will be bogged down or disappear. Generations do not know what ancestors left it to them and what the meaning behind. This can be demonstrated by the example of traditional house in Sabah. There is a very good example to express Malaysias culture.The traditional houses of Sabah reflect not only the beauty of traditional architecture, but also incorporates various cultural aspects of the ethnic groups of Sabah that can be appreciated by all generations as well as visitors to the state. Moreover, the houses show the diverse ways in which people have adapted to their environment, lifestyle, ritual, and beliefs. Natives of Sabah only can adapt to the environment in order to survive in this place. They grab whatever their needs from surrounding area at the place that they are living. In the other words, their residences will follow their lifestyle to make a change accordingly. That is what has mentioned before, form follows function.The houses were built by the various ethnic groups themselves to ensure quality and authenticity of each of these houses. They also reflect the skills of the local people in the past in utilizing existing building materials from their environment. The site of a houses organization may be influenced by the sun and the river a fresh supply of water.Longhouse represents indigenous people of Sab ah ar unity and harmony. There are various types long houses in Sabah. The Rungus Longhouse (see fig. 2) is one of them. The houses are not located on very high stilts to support they are usually only having around three to five feet above the ground. The roof is low, and in forepart on the house acts like a sunshade, keeping the house cool even during the hottest part of the day time. The existed doors of longhouses have 75. Now they rarely more than 10 doors, along the public corridor that has an elevated platform of split bamboo. The house is framed by outer slanting walls of wide-spaced shores. This provides fresh air circulation and a comfortable sitting area for work, relaxation and socializing. The materials of construct were taken from surrounding area where they could get to. For instance, their methods of construction are interlocking and lash with strips of rattan or woods because of hard to get a screw in their surrounding area.Fig. 2 Rungus longhouses combined with the structure of climate, environment, materials, and technology. So, the forms of the house is follows their lifestyle and environment.Indigenous people of Sabah are used to live as a group. Each increase in the longhouses are emphasizes its space organization reveals the close relationship between a family and the longhouse community. A longhouse is designed to private spaces for each family as well as open space for the whole community. The Rungus longhouses consist of several family apartments at the rear of t house and a communal veranda at the front. Each sulap contains an earthen fireplace (rapuan) and a sleeping area for a couple and their unmarried daughters boys and guests sleep at veranda (saloh). Furthermore, dance platform (lansaran) is built in a central area on the saloh. It is used for festival and in which the whole community participates in singing and dancing. That means the space planning of the house is follows our lifestyle and habit.In the other words, according t he survey find out a large proportion of people care about ergonomics. Namely Form follows function is absolutely necessarily in design.Fig. 3 The Rungus house open plan concept.On the other words, there are reflected how Sabahs indigenous people are versatile. The house was tie in a traditional life-style with the advancement of modern ideas, and keep down ancient skills, in this period of rapid development. Longhouse might exist because they will make changes by the environment to develop. In other words, their houses were built along with their requirements.Chapter 3Why not function follows form?The opposites view is that it is merely a functionalist approach. And we alleged dogma- form follows function might lack aesthetic appeal. The aspect of art always provides more than one option. Form follows function tended to kill the contribution of art in designs. Even they counted fundamental principle in design is disturbingIf does not following the principle of form follows function then a tall building should locate in everywhere and all has the same, there is no role except aesthetic. That means a high rise building in Beijing should look like other one in Taiwan, differently from the form only. Just as three famous modern architects of 20th century- Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier, and Frank Lloyd Wright, whom are stand to the principle. They all had their own particularly styles to use in different building materials to interpret function. Mies used steel and glass, Corbu used concrete, and Frank emphasized wood or concrete block. If ignores issues of culture, climate, technology, building material, all these about the function, and just as important on the style and preferences of the architect. All famous buildings should in a jumbled situation or one day you might live in an aesthetically house which made by paper. That signification that functions is driving the form.Of course, architecture has always looked for the way to transcend its own history. Co ntemporary architecture its not the exception but it has lost one of its basic principles for good as National Stadium, Beijing, which while innovative in concept, is famously poor for its function. In the other words, the innovative concept that designer express to cover up functionality of the stadium should have.Beijing National Stadium as known as the Birds Nest, which was designed by Swiss architecture firm Herzog HYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herzog__de_MeuronHYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herzog__de_Meuron de Meuron . The stadium was designed for use throughout the 2008 Summer Olympics and Paralympics. The concept of the stadium is based on three notions which are technology, energy conservation, and cultural conversation. It all looks perfectly in line with the concept of nowadays building design but it lost its original aims when the designer has decided to priority of sculptural form giving over the stadium needs of function.Birds Nest design emphasis novelt y and technology, so they are used a lot of new technology and materials. Hence, they used Q460 steel to construct the stadium. It seems a great design but it is fail. From the figure 4, we find the sporting of glory on the stadium. It has an amazing night view. Surprisingly, the first figure and the second is a mightily contrast. During the day time, the audiences can not watch the match because there is shadow on all sitesFig. 4 The night view of Beijing National Stadium, China.Fig. 5 The audiences can not focus on the show because the shadow of the stadium is being in a disordered condition during the day time.Therefore, they installed double translucent membrane at the top of the structure to solve the problem. The membranes got 30 percent of light permission only. As the same time, it is showed the interior of stadium would be not enough light despite they are used solar power generation system. In the case of energy conservation, the designer did not much to think over the cli mate of Beijing. There are four seasons but the solar power generation system is not work at the season or time that without sunlight, they still need to use electricity to maintain the brightness of the stadium. It does not carry energy conservation and environment friendly points.According to the Chinas Xin Hua News Agency reported, the person in charge of the stadium indicated that the complex structure of the stadium caused maintenance cost up to 6,000 million dollars (RMB) per year. It is difficult to obtain a profit after Olympic ceremony. And this important project for the Olympics had been invested seven billion dollars, just because of alleged new technology. That is not in line with cost effective.On the other hand, the designer had not considered in the design of the stadium clearly in the construction stage, suddenly proposed the Birds Nest roof problems. According to the assistant of Mayor said that the Birds Nest is a steel structure, it is extremely difficult to const ruct. The original design has a roof but the load of the roof close to the limit. It is very dangerous for safety issues. So, the expert advised to cancel the original roof. In the new design, the roof of the stadium was covering also but can not completely cover up whole stadium. That means it would be leaking.In addition, the stadiums design did not show the Chinese spirit. This is a good opportunity for Chinese, to let foreigners to understand their country culture. But they did not it is a very regrettable thing. All these problems mentioned before, it is sufficient evidence to proves the designer do not consider functionality, he just keen on his novelty and newness he wanted to neglect the important of the functional. So, if function follows form might occur when functionality is ignored. This also prove that function always precede form.Chapter 44.0 Forms in the future look likePeople are beginning to realize importance of environmental protection, starting to follow the foot step of green. So, the global future will be green architectures trend. An ecological lifestyle involves conscious rising about the relationship between consumption today and the conditions for future generation. Ecological development requires a balance between mankinds conception, the environment and the available recourses.Urban ecologist and author of Surviving the Century Facing Climate Chaos and other Global Challenges, Herbert Girardet quotes thatGreen buildings are making giant strides now because of public debate and new technology. Everyone may want to live a modern lifestyle but we know we cannot continue wrecking the planet. We need to build houses that dont need an outside energy supply.Hence, ecology thinking must be natural reflex for the architect of the future. And this was a response to the changing climate which demanded new buildings of increasing cut energy consumption and solid waste problems. The architect works on the basis of a new order where the building as a whole meets the requirements and challenges of an ecological future measures and novelty materials in an aesthetic and social program. And that is what thesis had mentioned before- form follows function. In despite of future or the past, we all can not escape from the rule.4.1 Form follows greenGreen design, as know as ecological design, uses design to include economic, social and ecological sustainability. Besides green building is also environment conscious design solutions where a sustainable form and function. Basically, green buildings concept is based on functional also. Mostly people concentrated on construct and appearance of the green building, neglecting material is also an important part in a building. It reminds people about recycling to save the environment. Green design is sustainable design as it is sustained by materials that can be recycled.The concept of sustainable building unifies multifarious of strategies during the process of building projects. The use of green building materials and products are very widely, which represents an important part in strategy at the design of a building. On the contrary, aesthetic has become the secondary. It is designed for reduce the solid waste problems, cut energy consumption in manufacturing, impact of the built environment on human health and save on natural resource use.4.2 Historic building blends with recycle materialsMost of the historic or old buildings emphasize exuberant and extravagant decoration especially European architecture which emerged from Neoclassical. Decorative style design more tends to decoration and aesthetic, neglect a building need and caused wasted spaces. But old building does not mean it is unprofitable. By reason of older building can be refurbish and renovate so that they can continue to function as urban elements to achieve the goals of green building. Besides making good use of old building can make environment sense, using and enhancing what already have.Green build ing is not just saving energy or else. It is also using product made from recycle material when renovating or constructing a new building. Just as Malaysia has a lot of heritage buildings also, but heritage buildings conservation is not entirely commercially viable It requires on the contrary a skillfully management and maintenance fee. So, why not get them into green elements while retaining their historic character? Green renovations included reduce energy consumption and durability of older and heritage buildings. Respectful renovation in order to reduce the operating energy of a building, making building renovation one of the most direct climate actions to express environment protection. This chapter will look at strategies for renovation while remaining their culture and heritage character in order to archive forms and function to be one.Renovation is a brilliant thing especially the architect for the renovation of an old building is taken into all the important views that are peculiarly for the renovation of an old building. Nevertheless there is something different. Just as historic city, George Town being listed as Cultural WorldHYPERLINK http//whc.unesco.org/ Heritage Sites as know as UNESCO. Of course, most of buildings in George Town have to renovation, just as High Court Pulau Pinang (see Fig.6 7). Although the governments are trying to remained all the forms as similitude as possible, it still have different. By the reason of all the renovate materials are new. They are lack of the use of recycle materials to retrofits. Most of the people like to use something new but they forget the old things even more value than new. These valuable materials are not easily copied by the new materials. Especially some of materials or decoration has no longer reproduction, and recycle material can be any help.Fig. 6 High Court before renovation in George Town,Fig. 7 High Court after renovation in George Town.Besides that, the one more important thing that we hav e to admit is restoration an old building with recycle materials for all of us are still pretty new and it is not accepted by the most. People still full of worries about it. According to the survey, a significant number of people can accept renovation but they generally felt that the maintenance costs of old buildings will be very expensive. As a matter of fact, they are lack of knowledge and understanding of recycle and renovate. Although some of the green materials cost higher than old building, there are still many more green materials cost still less than the standard. These green materials have better designs for a new generation of environmentally friendly products that are cost saving to produce. Many more of innovations today are coming from green manufacturers. Furthermore, recycle building materials lies in diminishing the need for industry to make a new product. All of the energy that is spent in manufacturing and transporting something can be saved.The main reason to us e recycle building materials are some of the old building materials still preserved their character elements, these can be restore the cultural meanings. It can be preserve their identity while enhance functionality. On the other hand, materials usage is marry up with structure of the building. And it is have a great relationship with ergonomics. That means materials are one of the function as well It is what the thesis mention before that forms and functions can be one.Chapter 55.0 ConclusionWhatever, we cant escape from tradition. To achieve the best of both worlds are very difficult. The debate about form and function is a vexed question. Some debate that form follows function, others, like architect Frank Lloyd Wright believed that form and function are one. However, in contemporary society there is sufficient evidence that function follows form, for without an understanding of form. Even so, there are some cases when form and function are one in order to get a balance. That is what we are inclined to green architectures.According to the result of survey, a proportion of people care about environment friendly but a significant number of peoples houses are not ecological sustainable house. Even so they are paid the fee for the home design, they would not design home as sustainable house. Not because of excluded, just because they are generally thought that cost of the house design they cant afford and worry about the maintenance of the house.From other point of view, more than half the numbers of people are dissatisfied towards their house designs. That means Malaysias architectures do not meet peoples expectation in its design criterion. It just only designs All the things consider that ecological design is accepted by Malaysian but they do not know much in it. By the reason of around 54% of the people prefer practicality rather than appearance. That imply form follows function is workable but it is a pity to say that sometimes forms were controlled by co st, natural selection, and culture.Closer look at the notion of function and the dogma form follows function, expressed why this impression proved to be so important. By the reason of the functionalist notion of function serves as guide to design the form. It guides the designer to narrow down the options and provide a starting point. The form now has a purpose or duty, if you will, of projecting the function that lies within. Just as a project has a problem to be solved rather than just making it look pretty is the great challenge. Function needs form in order to get a balance, it work as hand in hand. So, if an object has to present a perfect function, its design must be support that function. And continue to repeat again and again Form follows function. Form follows function.