Saturday, August 31, 2019

Management and Chemical Engineering Essay

I have completed my Bachelors of Technology in Chemical Engineering at Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati, India (IITG). I am seeking a position in your organization in order to enhance my skills and practical experience, while being resourceful and innovative. I have worked hard in my undergraduate studies, striking a balance between compulsory courses like Fluid Mechanics, Process Equipment Design, Process Control and Instrumentation, Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics, related wet lab courses and supervised research under the guidance of Dr Chandan Das (Associate Professor, Department of Chemical Engineering, IITG) & Dr AK Golder (Associate Professor, Department of Chemical Engineering, IITG). My Bachelor Thesis Project was on Biosorption of heavy metals to purify industrial effluents under the guidance of Dr. Chandan Das (Associate Professor, Dept. of Chemical Eng., IITG) and Dr. AK Golder (Associate Professor, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, IITG). When I look back now, I realize the role of an inspiring mentor in a student’s life. Dr. Das and Dr. Gloder gave me a whole new direction to explore my research skills and the interest in reading research articles while doing my undergraduate courses in mainstream Chemical Engineering. After graduation I joined Jindal Steel and Power Ltd as a Project Engineer where I practiced what I learnt during my educational life. Post completion of one year, I joined SPI Pvt. Ltd. As an Assistant Manager. I choose this as apart from technical skills, I also wanted to gain a good understanding about the business processes and its various elements. While working there my interest became more focused towards managerial skills. It was there where I decided to go for my higher education in Masters in Management as managerial knowledge via a reputed and esteemed university will help me to learn a wider scope of business management skills which was missing in my technical career. In my education thus far, I have been actively involved in sports and co-curricular activities including making manual robot, organized Rock-o-Phonix for three consecutive years (2008, 2009 & 2010) and represented IIT-Guwahati in Inter IIT sports meet in Football which has helped me to develop upon simplicity in approach, patience, team work, confidence, loyalty, ability to manage loads of stress and adaptability. To work using the in-hand knowledge and indigenous creativity simultaneously is my biggest asset. Education I believe is not just excelling in courses that we take and cracking their exams but a continuous process of development and self-realization. Not just asking â€Å"what to do† or â€Å"how to do† but â€Å"who am i† and â€Å"what is my purpose† too. My long term career goals are to become socially responsible individual and to get the dream job of working in the field of interest. If given the opportunity of pursuing the graduate study in field of management I would be getting involved in a project that will help me grow intellectually and professionally and result in useful outcomes.

The Matrix

Buddhism: In-Class Essay Assignment Choose one (1) of the following seven (7) options and compose a 5 paragraph in-class essay of approximately 3-4 pages in length. Please double space and use both sides of the page. Option 1: Morpheus and the crew of the Nebuchadnezzar are often viewed as examples of Arhats and Bodhisattvas. Do you think this is an accurate portrayal? Explain your answer using three criteria. Option 2: Individual choices are highlighted throughout the movie and are an example of the Buddhist goal to eliminate ignorance.Choose three characters in the movie and discuss the choices that they were faced with and how these choices illustrate key Buddhist concepts. Option 3: Names are highlighted throughout the film and are used to further explain religious concepts as well as deepen the plot. Choose three names from the movie and explain the religious concepts that they are illustrating. Option 4: While The Matrix borrows heavily from Buddhist philosophy certain elements of the film seem out of place in that they directly contradict Buddhist ideas. Write an essay that highlights three of these elements and explain how they contradict the beliefs of Buddhism.Option 5: Throughout the movie, Neo/Mr. Thomas Anderson is often cast in a saviour role. Explain how Neo/Mr. Thomas Anderson is similar to and/or different from various saviour figures in the religions we have studied (i. e. Siddhartha Guatama, The Buddha, Jesus, Vishnu/Krishna etc. ). Option 6: Which branch of Buddhism (Mahayana, Theravada or Vajrayana) seems to have inspired this film? Explain your answer using three different arguments. Option 7: Create your own question. Write out the question in clear language and have it approved by your teacher before you begin answering. The Matrix Recently, we have discussed how we know. Hilary Putnam, American philosopher, developed a thought experiment which has become so popular that it is the basis of blockbuster film The Matrix. In short, the thought experiment calls one to imagine that your brain and the nerves connecting it to your senses has been severed or disconnected. The brain would actually no longer be in your body it would be placed a vat filled with nutritional fluid to keep your brain alive and functioning. The sensory inputs in your brains are now connected to the outputs of a giant super computer.A man sits at this computer and inputs data, and this data is processed in your brain as if it came from your senses. Consequently, your brain would only know the information which was entered and would not know it was really sitting in a laboratory somewhere. Many philosophers have dealt with the issue of perceiving and knowing reality including Plato and Descartes. A dialogue will now commence in order to compare and contrast The Matrix with the writings of these two well-known philosophers.Additionally, perception versus reality, and is ignorance really bliss will be mentioned as these issues came up in the movie and both writings. There are numerous similarities and differences between The Matrix and the writings of Plato and Descartes. First a brief description of each piece will be discussed and then the similarities and differences. In The Matrix the main character Neo, is a computer hacker who meets a group of rebels lead by Morpheus. The mission of this group is to get the world to realize the human race is lying unconscious in giant machines that are keeping their bodies alive.Just like the Putnam thought experiment, their brains are all connected to a super computer on which a simulation of the world is running. Humans are unconsciously living out virtual lives in this computer simulation and are not aware of anything but the simulation. After joining Morpheus’ group of disse nters Neo realizes not everyone can handle the truth and a member of the group, Cypher betrays his comrades so he can once again live in the computer simulation. In the Plato cave allegory piece, there is a dialogue taking place between Socrates and Plato’s brother Glaucon.Here, Socrates describes a scenario in which men are held captive as prisoners in a cave from childhood. The men have their legs and head fettered so that they can only look straight ahead at the cave wall. For their whole lives they have seen shadows on the wall, objects passing by and all they could do is guess what the objects were. Then, Socrates asks Glaucon to imagine that one of these men was released. Ultimately, they deduce that the freed man would pity the other prisoners because he was able to experience things as they actually were and did not have to imagine what everything was.The reality was far more precious than his imagination. The third writing comes from Meditation I from Meditations on First Philosophy by Rene Descartes who offers some reasons to doubt his senses. In this piece, Descartes has resolved to forget everything he thinks he knows. He reasons that if he can doubt the basic principles upon which his opinions are founded then he can doubt all his previous opinions collectively. Most of the opinions he has believed to be most true came from his senses which are only sometimes reliable.Ultimately he realizes from habit or custom or just laziness that it is almost impossible to change his way of thinking so he just pretends these opinions are false so as to combat his long-held beliefs. There are many similarities between The Matrix and the cave allegory piece by Plato. Most prevalent is the idea of perception versus reality which is illustrated in both works. In The Matrix the perception is that humans are living real lives. Every day they get up, go to work, and come home. They are just normal people living.The reality however is that humans are unconscious , in machines that keep their bodies alive while their brains are all connected to the matrix which is simulating real life. The perception is completely false. Similarly, in the cave allegory the prisoners’ perception of objects passing the cave wall in the form of shadows is false. In reality, they are only guessing the true nature of the shadows and never really know what the objects are until one prisoner is freed and allowed to experience things as they really are.Although the perception is all the prisoners have when they are fettered, the truth is as the freed prisoner  experienced much better than any imagined object. When free, the prisoner could look at the sun and feel its warmth on his skin something the other prisoners could not imagine. Reality was so much better than the perception that at the end the free man pitied the other prisoners because of this fact. Neo taking the red pill and the prisoner being freed from the cave are moments that have the same impa ct. For the first time these individuals have the chance to truly experience all that was hidden. The differences between these two pieces were not as pronounced but still apparent.In The Matrix, Neo was given the option of taking the red pill or the blue pill. He had a choice to learn the truth about the world he was living in or to go back to his life in ignorance. Neo decided to live in reality and thus his life was forever changed. In the cave allegory the prisoner did not have a choice. He was imprisoned since childhood and thus forced to live in ignorance. It was only when his captors decided to free him was he able to experience what life really is beyond the perception of the cave. The Matrix and Meditation I by Descartes had a few similarities.The most striking similarity between the two is that both Neo and Descartes did not want to conform their way of thinking with that of the whole. A change happened and they questioned all they knew to be true. In each instance, a choi ce was made and this lead to an enlightenment of sorts. Neo had a feeling that something was not right about his life and chose to live outside of the norm. In the same way, Descartes knew his opinions and beliefs left room for doubt so he questioned the foundation on which he knew what he thought was true.Both men questioned long-held beliefs as a way to determine if what they knew to be true actually was. The major difference between the movie and Descartes’ piece is the permanency of the change that occurred in Neo and Descartes. Neo was changed forever when he decided to live in the true real world. In the movie once Neo discovered who he really was nothing would be the same for anyone, including those living in the matrix. At the end of Meditation I, Descartes was unsure if he would be able to maintain his new way of thinking and would  try to pretend that all his opinions are false.Ultimately, there is a chance he will go back to his old way of thinking but this does not happen in Neo’s situation. There is no chance Neo will go back since his change was more than a change in his thought processes like the change described by Descartes. As a result of these works, questions naturally arise about perception and reality. For example, how do we know the world we are experiencing is real? Can we ever really be sure that we are not living in a matrix right now?Unless someone comes along and shows us different we are geared to believe the things we perceive with our senses are real and the world we live in is real. In the end, we may discover that life is itself a dream and when we die we will wake up to this realization. There is no true way to know if we are living in some sort of matrix unless we are made aware of something else as Neo was. Another question, which is better, the harshness of reality or the â€Å"ignorance is bliss† comes about because of Cypher’s betrayal in The Matrix. Ignorance is defined â€Å"as a lack of k nowledge, understanding, or education,† Merriam-Webster.Merriam-Webster, n. d. Web. Bliss means to be completely happy and thus the saying ‘ignorance is bliss† means if one lacks knowledge they are completely happy. It is much better to escape the cave and live in a world just as it is the good with the perceived bad. If a person is ignorant they do not have the means to make an informed decision and thus are at a disadvantage. It is my position that the harshness of reality is best for the human race as a whole because it gives us all the opportunity to make life what we want it to be and not what some computer imagines for us.Having the option there is no choice to make. I want to live my most authentic life why live if I cannot co-create my own masterpiece. There are people who would like to live in ignorance like Cypher, but then you are choosing to end up just like him dead. In conclusion, these works all generate thought into reality and perception. The ultim ate truth for anyone is that knowing comes from a desire to know. As long as you live you have a choice to make as Neo did to live in ignorance or knowing anything is possible. The Matrix Buddhism: In-Class Essay Assignment Choose one (1) of the following seven (7) options and compose a 5 paragraph in-class essay of approximately 3-4 pages in length. Please double space and use both sides of the page. Option 1: Morpheus and the crew of the Nebuchadnezzar are often viewed as examples of Arhats and Bodhisattvas. Do you think this is an accurate portrayal? Explain your answer using three criteria. Option 2: Individual choices are highlighted throughout the movie and are an example of the Buddhist goal to eliminate ignorance.Choose three characters in the movie and discuss the choices that they were faced with and how these choices illustrate key Buddhist concepts. Option 3: Names are highlighted throughout the film and are used to further explain religious concepts as well as deepen the plot. Choose three names from the movie and explain the religious concepts that they are illustrating. Option 4: While The Matrix borrows heavily from Buddhist philosophy certain elements of the film seem out of place in that they directly contradict Buddhist ideas. Write an essay that highlights three of these elements and explain how they contradict the beliefs of Buddhism.Option 5: Throughout the movie, Neo/Mr. Thomas Anderson is often cast in a saviour role. Explain how Neo/Mr. Thomas Anderson is similar to and/or different from various saviour figures in the religions we have studied (i. e. Siddhartha Guatama, The Buddha, Jesus, Vishnu/Krishna etc. ). Option 6: Which branch of Buddhism (Mahayana, Theravada or Vajrayana) seems to have inspired this film? Explain your answer using three different arguments. Option 7: Create your own question. Write out the question in clear language and have it approved by your teacher before you begin answering.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Changes in the environment Essay

The changes in environment that people in space experience also mean changes in significant cues. For example, there is the absence of a fixed horizon that is expected to reduce the efficiency of a person’s perceptions of shape, distance, location and motion (Man-Systems Integration Standards, 2006). The noise aspect is also considered as a human factor particularly in the design of habitat (Special Issue on the International Workshop on Human Factors in Space, 2000). One of the critical requirements in space is the ability of people to communicate with each other. There are noise exposure limits that are established because outside Earth, even low levels, especially when it is intermittent noise, can affect the communication system and human performance especially in complex tasks. Noise also causes fatigue, distraction, irritation and aggressiveness which are already under the scope of psychology but nonetheless, far from what are needed by the people in space (Man-Systems Integration Standards, 2006). The humans must be able to acclimatize themselves to changes in pressure associated with space travel. Because humans are used to atmosphere with 21% oxygen at sea level, equipment and traveling environment are adjusted to maintain an equivalent partial pressure that would sustain life. Pressure values vary from person to person depending on his or her degree of acclimatization to altitude. As a rule, people who are accustomed to higher altitude require less total pressure compared to people who are not accustomed to higher altitude. The partial pressure for normal people who work in space are usually maintained above 152 mm Hg while those who are not accustomed to such environment must maintain a total pressure above 417 mm Hg (Man-Systems Integration Standards, 2006). Psychology The management of human’s psychological state in space is indeed a part of NASA’s standards. â€Å"Human factors research and technology will also ensure that interpersonal interactions are planned maintain a healthy and constructive attitude, thus enhancing productivity and mission success among an international culturally-diverse crew (Man-Systems Integration Standards, 2006). † This implies an assumption that metal and psychological performance and human interactions could have a very significant role in the success of an exploration. Conclusion With the advent of space age, the human factors research contributes significantly especially to the present knowledge in flight, which involves the participation of humans. Success in space missions would be doubtful without consideration of the human factors to which any mission’s success or failure depends. References Brown, D. L. , DeVilbiss, C. A. , Ercoline, W. R. , and Yauch, D.W. (2000). Post-roll Effects on Attitude Perception: The Gillingham Illusion. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Vol. 71, 489-495. Bungo, M. W. , & Johnson, P. C. (1983). Cardiovascular Eexaminations and Oobservations of Deconditioning Dduring the Space Shuttle Orbital Flight Test Program. Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine, Vol. 54, 1001-1004. Davis J. R. (1999). Medical Issues for a Mission to Mars. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine, Vol. 70, 162-168. Ercoline, W. R. , Freeman, J. E. , Gillingham, K. K. , and Lyons, T. J. (1994). Classification Problems of US Air Force Spatial Disorientation Accidents, 1989-91. † Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Vol 65, 147-152. Gander P. H, Myhre G, Graeber R. C, Andersen H. T, and Lauber J. K. (1989). Adjustment of Sleep and the Circadian Temperature Rhythm After Flights Across Nnine Time Zones. † Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine. Vol. 60 (8), 733 ¬-743. Human factors. (2007). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 12 April 2007, from http://en. wikipedia. org/w/index. php? title=Human_factors&oldid=121814170. Man-Systems Integration Standards (2006). NASA, Vol. 1. Retrieved 9 April 2007 from http://msis. jsc. nasa. gov/sections/section01. htm. Miller (n. d. ). Physical Deconditioning During Prolonged Space Flight. School of Aerospace Medicine, Brooks Air Force Base: Texas. Partners in Space. (2005). European Commission. Retrieved 08 April 2007 from http://ec. europa. eu/research/conferences/2005/esw/conference/partners/article_2004_en. htm. Patton JF, Duggan A. (1987). An evaluation of tests of anaerobic power. Aviation Space Environ Med. Vol. 58, 237-42. President Bush Announces New Vision for Space Exploration Program. (2004). The White House: Office of the Press Secretary. Retrieved 8 April 2007 from http://www. whitehouse. gov/news/releases/2004/01/20040114-3. html. Sacknoff, S. (2005). State of the Space Industry. International Space Business Council, 1-887022-15-5, 56. Sinha. (2002). â€Å"The effect of a 5-day space flight on the immature rat spine. † The Spine Journal, Vol. 2 (4), 239-243. Special Issue on the International Workshop on Human Factors in Space. (2000). Aviation, Space & Environmental Medicine Journal. 71: Section II. Stern, R. M. , Hu, S. , Anderson, R. B. , Leibowitz, H. W. and Koch, K. L. (1990). â€Å"The effects of fixation and restricted visual field on vection-induced motion sickness. † Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine, Vol. 61 (8), 712-715. The Human Advantage. (2003). NASA. Retrieved 8 April 2007 from http://liftoff. msfc. nasa. gov/news/2003/news-human. asp. Vogel, J. M. , & Whittle, M. W. (1976). Bone mineral changes: The second manned Skylab mission. Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine. Vol. 47, 396-400.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Dynamic Analysis of Malware Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Dynamic Analysis of Malware - Research Paper Example A function comprises of a code that executes a certain task like creating a file or calculating factorial value of a number. In the use of functions easy code re-usability, and easier maintenance can result. The property that makes functions interesting for program analysis is that they are usually used to abstract from execution particulars to a semantically richer representation. For example, so long as the outcome corresponds to the sorted input, the particular algorithm which a sort function implements might not be essential. When it comes to analyzing code, such abstractions help in gaining an overview of the behavior of the program when analyzing a code. By intercepting these calls, one can monitor what functions are called by a program. Hooking is the process of intercepting function calls. A hook function is invoked when the analyzed program is manipulated in addition to the anticipated function (Hunt, Thomas, & Cunningham, 1999). Application Programming Interface (API) This hook function is responsible for putting into action the necessary analysis functionality like analyzing its input parameters or recording its stats to a log file. Application Programming Interface (API) are groups of functions that form a logical set of functionality, like communicating over the network or file manipulation. In most cases, operating systems provide several APIs that can be used by applications to perform familiar tasks and can be found on diverse layers of abstraction. The term API on windows OS, refers to a set of APIs which give access to varying functional groupings like system services, networking, management and security (Leyden, 2001). System Calls System calls is usually categorized into two, and it is the software execution on computer systems which run commodity of the shelf OS. These two categories are user-mode and kernel-mode. User-mode is used in executing general applications like image manipulation programs or word processors. The only code that is executed in kernel-mode has direct entry to the system state. This partition prohibits the user-mode process from interacting with the system and its environment. For example, since it is impossible to create or directly open a file for a user-space process, the operating system (OS) provides a unique well defined API-the system call interface. A user-mode application is able to request the OS to perform a small set of tasks on its behalf, by using system calls. A user-mode application has to invoke the precise system-call showing the file’s path, name and access method in order to create a file. As soon as the system call is invoked, it is changed into kernel-mode. The OS carries out the task on behalf of the user-mode applications when there are enough access rights for the desired action upon verification (Nick, 2006). Anubis Anubis is a critical component/tool which is used for studying/analyzing Windows PE-executable’s behavior, main focus being on malware analysis. Anubis execution results in the making of report files that have enough information, thus enabling a user to have a clear idea about the use and actions of the analyzed binary. The report has detailed data regarding enhancements made to the Windows registry or file system. This analysis relays on running and watching the binary in an emulated environment. The

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Come up with a topic for me Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Come up with a topic for me - Essay Example For Japan to get involved in international politics on the same platform as Western powers, she had to extend her territory with Taiwan. The Sino-Japanese War won by Japan helped the country acquire Taiwan, which was initially under Japanese rule. China’s defeat in the hands of Japan compelled Qing Empire cede Taiwan to Japan (Ching 7). A group of Taiwanese refused to accept the takeover, and Japan spent six months fighting local guerilla armies. Japan lost many soldiers to diseases, not bullet wounds. The Japanese imperial powers recognized that tackling disease had to be a primary concern. In the initial two decades of the Japanese rule, significant progresses were made in public health (Jacobs 47). The Japanese rule built health centers and equipped them with facilities to help in fighting disease. The development of the health sector in Taiwan is attributed to Japanese rule that invested a lot of resources in the sector. Even though there were many political groups agitating for reforms and a parliament in Taiwan during the time of Japanese rule, these did not signify an anti-Japanese attitude among the people of Taiwan. The industrial and economic development caused by the Japanese administration led to the improvement of the living standards of the Taiwanese (Jacobs 47). There were a lot of pro-Japanese emotions on the part of many Taiwanese people of that time. Some people were skeptical of the Japanese rule since they appeared to push for their interests more than that of Taiwan. As the Japanese improved Taiwanese exports and commerce, the Taiwan economy boomed to an unprecedented height (Fell 16). The Japanese built roads, harbors, rail, power plants, factories, and a sewage system for the people of Taiwan. There was an introduction of capitalism where the Japanese enterprises competed in the production of sugar and rice with small-scale farmers. The Japanese government played a critical role in improving the economy

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

General Concepts and Variables Assignment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

General Concepts and Variables Assignment - Essay Example . Read the examples of studies that have then in the email addresses or search in a newspaper or magazine a report of a study and answer the following questions. Internet usability http://www.uberbin.net/archivos/estrategias/usabilidad-los-hombres-lo-prefieren-rapido-las-mujeres-mejor.php Purchase Online Travel http://isabelvazquez.com/2009/02/10/la-compra-de-viajes-por-internet/ a. Research question Is there gender differences in web usability criteria? b. Research Questions Do the majority (82%) prefer specialized web sites compared to traditional Agencies when informing and purchasing travel notes in Spanish network? c. Population and sample Population is Internet users (Men and women using the internet) d. Say if it is an example of descriptive and inferential statistics. Purchase online travel is an example of inferential statistics The internet usability case is an example of inferential statistics 3. Select which of the following options can be defined as variable: a. The number of women enrolled in Sec 4 of Mat210 Not a variable b. The grade point average of the students of the USC Variable

Monday, August 26, 2019

HR Strategic Linkages Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

HR Strategic Linkages - Assignment Example HR  department allows the business and the employees to be on the same page and it is the medium between them. It supports the business strategy by encouraging employees to work harder and more efficiently. HR works closely with the employees which in turn benefits the organization as a whole.   An important factor for continuous competitive success is how a company manages its human capital. Investments in human capital can result in better organizational performance and increased productivity which can further improve its financial position. Without it, an organization can lose its efficient production capabilities. Secondly, HR can also help an organization to achieve its goals associated with growth and development. It can help by recruiting employees and determining training needs. It can also help by attracting capable employees and by modifying job requirements. Internally, HR can help by analyzing those parts of a organization which need improvement and introduce ways to improve the performance feedback procedures. It can help as a strategic partner by reorganizing the management structure to make efficient use of its resources. Including HR as a strategic business partner enables better decision making. What benefits do you think the employees derive from this arrangement? As a result of this arrangement, employees receive a lot of benefits. To build human capital, HR develops strategies for finding the best talent, enhancing their knowledge and skills through training programs. Employees will begin to have a deeper understanding of how the organization works. The employees will benefit because HR will initially recruit internally so the employees will get the first opportunity to develop new skills and tasks. Task and skill analyses will further highlight the needs of employees. HR will also introduce more recruiting tools and will give all the employees opportunities for professional and personal development. Employees will also benefit as HR wil l provide compensation and bonuses in order to reward people for their hard work and contribution. Improved performance feedback process with also help the employees as managers will get specific training for it. HR will reorganize the management plan and rotate the employees which will further increase their motivation and improve their skills. It will also retain exceptional employees for the company. The HR has the skills and ability to solve employee related issues. The motivation level of all the employees will increase through these measures as they will see that their hard work and contribution is being recognized and rewarded. Employees can also easily take help from HR as they are now strategic partners to their organization. Motivation of all employees can be further increased by giving them health care coverage, daycare, vacation time, bonuses etc. All these rewards together can boost employee performance and hence create a better working environment for all the workers. What do you think are the risks involved (to HR and the organization as a whole) if HR does not make this a priority and instead remains a purely task-oriented? The organization will have to face a lot of negative consequences if HR does not make this a priority and remains task-oriented. HR will only be involved and interested in the day-to-day responsibilities and tasks. They will not be helping the organization in achieving their

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Family Ties Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Family Ties - Essay Example We all know how important family ties are for people and how needful it is, to have someone close enough to support and understand you in any situation. Either parent in childhood or a spouse in the adult life is those who would never leave or betray. To my thinking, marriage ties are the strong connection between people similar to the connection existing between parents and children. As one begins his/her life journey and starts living separately from parents, a wife or a husband may become the most precious soul mate to accompany and help throughout one's life. People do not bear soul mates, they become soul mates, and it is the great happiness, to find such a soul mate. To me, my wife is the person I can always rely on, the person I can fully trust. And marriage is not a mere word for us. We are used to supporting and complementing each other, and living apart would be very hard and unhappy for both of us, especially living in different countries. I would like to be near her both in happy and sad moments and help her overcome all the hardships. This is what I promised to do when I married her. People say that when people love their souls come in touch with each other until they become a single whole. I am sure a husband and a wife have one soul for two, and tearing his soul apart would be very painful for both. Living alone without my wife here will be extremely hard for me: I am a man, and I want to be a tower of strength for the woman who is the dearest person to me.

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Is American Culture a Harmless Invasion Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Is American Culture a Harmless Invasion - Essay Example The author of the paper states that American troops may have been fighting against a country without an army for five years in Iraq to bring the culture of democracy to it, but the real victory has been the corporate invasion that has even managed to witness a company that has long used the advertising slogan related to how many hamburgers it has sold establish a footing in India, a country where the natural resource that provides beef is considered sacred. American culture is not a harmless invasion because it is even more successful actual battlegrounds attempting to enforce democracy upon foreign nations that are perhaps not quite ready to make that leap. Every town in American already looks like alike with its Wal-Marts, Burger Kings, Home Depots and Rave Motion Picture Theaters standing proudly as beacons of homogeneity in part because they displace the specific cultural touchstones of home-owned business. American culture is constructed upon a solid foundation of destroying the specific generational individualities of towns, cities, and regions. Monoculture is the real description of American culture because it is based upon a bland sameness in which every street in a town resembles every street in any other town.  Globalizing America’s monoculture threatens to do the same, and is there really anyone who wants to travel to London or Paris or Tokyo or Sydney and not be able to distinguish between those towns and Peoria or Las Cruces or Pittsburgh?  Ã‚  

Friday, August 23, 2019

Philosophy Paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Philosophy Paper - Essay Example The logical question that one might ask with relation to the drug laws relates to two primary premises. The first of which is concentric up on the question of what document or law allows the state to determine what substances should and should not be termed legal. The second premise is concentric upon the level of freedom and personal responsibility should be championed over the ability of the state to restrict certain substances. This brief essay will discuss these premises and attempt to draw an overall level of inference from them as a means of adequately answering prompt 3 that has been enumerated on above. The first premise of such an argument necessarily is concentric upon the fact that there is no legal basis for the government/state to restrict an individual with regards to the substance that he or she chooses to engage. ... ns can and cannot be engaged upon, it is the ultimate responsibility of the user to ensure that their actions do not break any other laws nor endanger the lives of any of their fellow citizens. As a causal mechanism to help understand this premise one need only to consider the current litany of rules that help to define the use of alcohol within our current society. Alcohol itself is heavily licensed, restricted for sale to minors and probationers, and further governed by a stringent level of laws that seek to define the way in which individuals within society can imbibe of it and in so doing revoke their rights to operate machinery or engage in other forms of nominally responsible activities which could endanger the lives of their fellow citizens. Those that do not agree with such a premise would argue that due to the fact that drugs are inherently destructive to the person’s overall health, it is the responsibility of the state to regulate such substances and outlaw them as a means to protect the health of society. Unfortunately, such an argument is a very slippery slope as it encourages a form of judicial activism with very few constraints. As a wider and wider swath of society becomes active in encouraging key food groups to be outlawed, soda sizes to be decreased, and a litany of other actions, it is easy to see that the level to which personal responsibility I championed is steadily decreasing; whereas the level to which the law is relied upon to enforce a sense of morality upon the populace is seemingly ever increasing. The slippery slope argument that has been referenced with relation to unhealthful food is more than just a means to illicit a response from the reader. Municipalities and governments around the world are beginning to mandate what foods their

Economics and Government Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Economics and Government - Essay Example More and more economies are opening themselves up for the free and unrestricted trade with partners from East and West. Countries like China and India have benefited a lot from the free trade and a drive towards globalization. Over the period of time, countries like China has been able to dominate the world trade market with exporting their goods and services to other countries. Though the free trade offers important benefits to improve the overall economic conditions of rich and poor countries however, it can also serve as an important deterrent for war. Globalization and integration of economic interests of the countries make it relatively difficult for countries to fight with each other. The complex nature of international free trade and how the economic interests are intricate with each other make it extremely difficult for the countries to wage war against each other. This paper will argue and discuss that free trade stops war between countries. Globalization and Free Trade Glob alization has emerged as one of the most important forces of change during recent times. What started as an economic move to open the borders and allow free trade has now made inroads into other fabrics of the society also. More importantly, changes are being observed at socio-political level where smaller and developing countries are transitioning towards democracy and improved economic performance. It is critical to note that globalization is really a diverse term and to define it appropriately may be a difficult task. Over the period of time, the explanations as well as the impact of globalization has really widened. Globalization, initially focused upon ensuring developing mechanisms and processes which can be put in place to allow nations to trade with each other with no or very restricted barriers to entry. Â  (Chanda, 2007) As a result of this drive towards the free trade, many nations including China and India benefited from open economies. Since developing countries are es sential providers of raw material and also possess cheap labor therefore the overall benefit was perceived to be transferred to poor countries. Through globalization, poor countries were allowed to benefit from their raw materials and cheap labor sources. Apart from this, poor countries also benefited from the transfer of technology which took place due to globalization. Developed countries, in order to avail the benefit of cheap labor and raw materials actually helped transfer of technology to the poor countries to take advantage from the latest technology to manufacture goods in more efficient manner. (Escobar, 2006) One of the moves towards achieving the free trade and ensure further trade liberalization, World Trade Organization was founded. World Trade Organization or WTO is considered as the apex body which formulates the rules of the game when it comes to trade between the countries and also monitor the same. WTO not only creates the agreements which reduce the barriers to en sure free trade between the countries but also mediate the disputes between countries arising due to trade. (Moore and Lewis, 2009) The overall debate on free trade and what are its pros and cons actually are based upon two set of important arguments. One set of arguments is based upon the moral arguments and other set of arguments is purely based upon the economic impacts of free trade. The moral set of arguments was based upon the assumption that the free

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Influence to the Indian populace Essay Example for Free

Influence to the Indian populace Essay His influence to the Indian populace was so great that when he met an accident while filming the movie, Coolie, the whole nation prayed for his recovery. There was also a great number of Indians who donated blood for the actor. During the taping for the movie, Bachchan wanted a scene to be realistic so he suggested how the punch should be undertaken unfortunately, the acting got so intense that he ended up in pain. For several days, the doctors cannot find the source of Bachchan’s hurt, until one day, a doctor was able to detect a dark spot on his intestine. The dark spot was his undigested when the punch in his abdomen was made. After seventy-two hours of pain, the undigested food could have turned into poison (Mishra 142-143). His intestine was also ruptured as a result of his fall on the steel table after the punch administered by the stuntman (Chopra n. pag. ) The doctors opted for an immediate operation, however, while he was in the operating table, he lost signs of life. He was declared clinically dead until his wife, Jaya shouted that he saw him move his toe. After this remarkable statement of his wife, the doctors were able to revive him (Mishra 142-143). Throughout the period that he was in the hospital, his supporters speculated that the punch that he received was real and intentional—that it was meant to hurt him. However, no proof was established to back up the claim. After the recovery, Bachchan continued filming the movie to where he left off. He also thanked those who offered prayers for his recovery and the support that the entire nation devoted to him. To date, he is the only movie actor who received such sympathy. People from all walks of life showed all the support they can give and it was as if life in India stopped for Bachchan. Life only returned to its normal shape when it was declared that he is already safe (Mishra 142-143) Aside from acting, Bachchan also tried his luck in politics after he was swayed by his friend Rajiv Gandhi, whose mother was assassinated and won by sympathy vote. Bachchan was elected to a Parliamentary seat, however, this prestigious position did not prove beneficial to him as his name was included to a political controversy. Bachchan, his brother and Rajiv were accused with bribery. It was rumored that the Boffors company bribed Indian politicians to ensure that the government will buy tanks and other military equipment from them (Mishra 144). This hullabaloo seriously injured the name that Bachchan was able to established through time so he decided to quit politics two years after he first explored it. After his flop in the field of politics, Bachchan returned to his first love—film making. Bachchan is well loved by the Indians and his acting widely accepted, however, these love and acceptance were not enough to keep his star shining after the political controversy he faced. Mishra, however, points out that his breakdown in politics is not the direct cause of his collapse as a star. Just like the period when he started his sensational career as an actor, the people then were looking for variety, for something new to watch, the Indians also felt this way at some point when Bachchan was the king of the charts. The people were worn-out with the constant revenge and anger theme in his movies and were looking for something new—for a new approach in movies. This was the time when the need to revive Romanticism was felt. The revival of romance in the films brought back the idea of a character and once again motivation replaced generic predictability, something which Bachchan turned his back on (Mishra 138). For Bombay cinema to survive, the romantic twist had to return. And so, as Bachchan’s star waned, romance returned (Mishra 138). After his political stint and cinema flops, Bachchan shifted his attention to a new venture. He created a multi-faceted commercial enterprise known as the Amitabh Bachchan Corporation Limited or ABCL. The company delved in production and distribution of films and other ventures that involved the movie industry. For sometime, the company enjoyed success in producing movies and even catered the Miss World pageant in India in 1996. However, in its latter years, it faced so many debts that it reached bankruptcy (Indiaoye). His failure both in the political and business worlds, prompted him to go back to where he established his name—the entertainment industry. At 55, he filmed his comeback movie, Mrityutada. It was not as successful as his previous movies but it was enough to sustain him in the entertainment field. Two years after his comeback film, he was named in a BBC poll as the Superstar of the Millennium. This title placed him in equal footing with Sir Lawrence Olivier, Charlie Chaplin and Marlon Brando. Aside from this, he is also the first Asian actor to be included in Madame Tassaud’s wax museum (hindi lyrix n. pag. ). According to Mishra, Bachchan’s success in his career is not only because of his talent in acting but also because of his skill in building his image outside the theater houses. The author suggests three stages in the life of Bachchan that moulded his image as an actor. First is his relationship with his leading ladies, particularly Rekha. Rekha, the daughter of the Hindi actor Ganeshan, is a tall and good looking woman who exhibited real acting talent. She was one of the few actors then who brought â€Å"real sense of character to the films†. She was suspected by journalists to have established a romantic relation with Bachchan and this suspected relationship was â€Å"extensively documented in the fanzines†. Mishra suggests that this added to the growth of the â€Å"quietly sanctioned counternarrative† by the actor himself. However, Bachchan imposed censorship when journalists began to pester him (Mishra 140). The affair of Rekha and Bachchan was better revealed in the movie Silsila (Continuity, 1981). In this movie the actors showed what they could not reveal in real life—depicting the love triangle that exists between Jaya, the wife; Bachchan, the husband; and Rekha, the mistress (Mishra 141).

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Analysis to look at Red Bulls strategies

Analysis to look at Red Bulls strategies Red Bull has turned itself into a multinational company that offers a product that enhances the mind and the body. Their method of managing their internal and external situation and circumstances has become an interesting topic for many. Thus we conducted some analysis to look at Red Bulls strategies, and especially the international strategies. The external analysis was a mix of positive and negative observations, for example they have the advantage of the customer loyalty and the production cost, and however, they are in the territory of major players in the beverage industry which put them at risk. Nevertheless, the industry analysis and peer review helped to shed some light on Red Bulls external report, where we can see a substantial growth in the industry and Red Bull headship in the energy drink market. Through the internal analysis we observed that Red Bull leads a proactive approach towards their business by adopting conventional and unconventional methods to expand their horizons. Through the value chain model, we observed that Red Bulls internal marketing and sales strategies have shown ground breaking success on international scale. Moreover, the HR has accomplished to attract the right candidates to achieve the required goals, simple because they are young and know the young target market exactly. The generic strategy analysis of Red Bull has presented Red Bull a differentiated product within its market and a focused-differentiated product within the beverages industry. The norm is that any kind of differentiated products target few selected customers, however, Red Bull did become selective but became massively popular among the youth, and hence, they produce over 1 billion cans each year. The SWOT analysis they was conducted on Red Bull has crystallized some Weaknesses and threats. However, the Strengths and Opportunities outweigh the downside of Red Bull; moreover, the Weaknesses and Threats that Red Bull faces can easily be managed and fixed by Red Bull. We can safely conclude that Red Bull has adopted the right target market and the right method to communicate with the target market. More interestingly, we can see that Red Bull has adopted a product and especially a marketing strategy that can easily be copied to different counties and culture. In other words, it has spoken the language of the youth. History Background History A red cape is not always necessary to attract a bull towards you; nowadays it has become available in a can in the hypermarket, supermarket, grocery and the club near you. This all has become possible thanks to a visionary man called Dietrich Mateschitz, who is the discoverer, modifier, and introducer of the internationally famous drink, Red Bull. It all started in Hong Kong, in 1982, when Mateschitz was at the hotel bar sipping a famous local health tonic. While he was drinking he had a vision of marketing an Asian drink in the western countries. About two years from the vision, the Austrian Mateschitz teamed up with a Thai business man called Chaleo Yoovidhya to produce this product. Together they fiddled with the product, to take out the syrup nature of the product and make it fizzy. Canned in a silver and blue container, with a brand the shows two red bulls going head-to-head against each other, hence the brand was named Red Bull. (Red Bull Founder Rides Wave of Success) In 1987, the product was then taken to Austria where it had its first groundbreaking success in no time. In started going international in 1992, when they entered Hungary. Red Bull is currently active in over 100 countries, energizing the population and creating competition as they go along. One source mentioned that there are over 150 energy drink brands, however, all inferior to the mighty Red Bull (A REFRESHED CREW IS AN EFFICIENT CREW). With over 1 billion cans sold each year, Red Bull controls 70% of the worlds market share of energy drinks. Background Red Bull became strong when they created a high quality drink that is only made in Austria. Furthermore, all of its ingredients are synthetically made in pharmaceutical companies to grantee high quality and safety. Moreover, due to the ingredients of the product, it is said that Red bull (Red Bull FAQ): Improves performance Improves concentration and reaction speed Improves vigilance Improves emotional status Stimulates metabolism However, the main reason for the success of Red Bull is in its advertising style. Red Bull tends to spend very little on conventional or traditional marketing tools, like TV and Print ads. Their marketing strategy is usually out of the box and creative. Red Bull tends to be more active in sponsoring extreme spots and giving away samples in local events. Due to the fact that Mateschitz has been involved in Formula One racing for more than a decade, he used the events to draw attention to his brand. In addition, he sponsored the World Stunt Awards, an annual fund-raiser to help injured stunt workers (Red Bull Founder Rides Wave of Success). Moreover, some observers say that Red Bull uses the anti-branding method of advertising, where they broke the usual method of marketing and branding. Actually what they did was use the buzz marketing strategy or better known as word of mouth. With this strategy, they associated their brand with the youth culture and extreme and adventure-related spo rts, such as motor sports, mountain biking, snowboarding and dance music. Thus they targeted their brand directly to people from Generation Y, the so-called millennials: people born after 1981 who were believed to be cynical of traditional marketing strategies (A Look at a Key Feature of Red Bulls Business). The Buzz over Red Bull among the youth and their underground attitude has created Red Bulls reputation as the drink within that community. That is why Red Bull continues to use Viral marketing internationally, where the company would rather restrict the supply of Red Bull and not advertise it, expecting that growing numbers of target consumers to catch the bug and its reputation would spreads. Through this strategy, Red Bull has successfully captured 70% of the à ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¤1.6 billion market (A Look at a Key Feature of Red Bulls Business). External Analysis Porter Five Force Analysis The external analysis is one of the most important steps that a company should take to achieve to its goals and objectives. Moreover, for taking this step we should be aware of the essence of formulating competitive strategy which is related to company and its external environment. Also, we know that the relevant environment is very broad; encompassing social as well as economic forces, the key aspect of the firms environment is the industry or industries in which it competes. In addition, taking care of industry structure which has a strong influence in determining the competitive rules is very important because it includes the game as well as the strategies potentially available to the firm. Forces outside the industry are significant primarily in a relative sense; since outside forces usually affect all firms in the industry, the key is found in the differing abilities of firms to deal with them. Michael porter has offered a unique framework for make an easy way to analyze. Michae l Porters framework for industry analysis is described in his book Competitive Strategy (1980). In this book Porter claims that there are essentially five forces which determine the underlying structure of an industry. Rivalry among existing competitors, buyers, suppliers, potential entrants into the business and Threat of substitute products are those five forces which can have positive or negative effects on industry structure by making the industry more or less competitive. Potential Entrants In this case the potential competitors of red bull are soft drinks companies, which can produce energy drink with out adding bubbles. If the barriers of entry are high, it is difficult for potential competitors to enter the market. Three main sources of barriers to new entry: brand loyalty, absolute cost advantages, and economies of scale. Brand loyalty Due to the done research, innovation in creating new energy drinks, proper and profession advertisement, holding many special events and sponsorships, and having high quality for its products makes Red Bull as well known brand with a strong brand loyalty which is a barrier for any new entrant to enter the energy drink industry to compete with it. Cost advantage According to the Michael Porter, normally cost disadvantage is a big barrier for companies to enter an industry as new entrants because it can be cost advantage for existing companies in that industry. Also, companies with the help of cost advantages can compete and beat their competitors very easily because usually it is difficult for new entrants to match their companies with the lower cost structure. Therefore, Red Bull because of Red Bulls superior production and operation processes, and their experience in the energy drink industry, and control of its inputs according to their experience in producing red bull drinks, benefit the cost advantages with keeping its quality in the high level. Although there are many energy drinks existing in the industry with the lower price rather than Red Bull, as quality aspect they have not cost advantages both in quality and price, so Red Bull is steps ahead from its competitors in this case. Customer switching cost In food and beverage industry there is no switching cost for costumers with considering the level of quality, therefore it can be considered as threat for existing companies in this industry. In this case, Red Bull is not exceptional, so they need to keep their quality at the same level to not loosing their market share by coming new entrants because it is real threat for them. Government regulations One of big issues and always concerns for companies which like to go internationally is government regulation, also, in this case some Europe countries have problem with selling Red Bull and have tried to ban it. They claim that Red Bull was the cause of death of people in those countries. France, Belgium, and Sweden ban using the mixture of Red Bull and alcohol. So, it can be a threat for them in taking the market share and having a bad image for their brand. . (French Ban on Red Bull (drink) Upheld By European Court) Intensity of Rivalry Rivalry in some industries is characterized by such phrases as warlike, bitter, or cutthroat, whereas in other industries it is termed polite or gentlemanly. Energy drink industry has an intense rivalry because of a number of interacting structural factors: Industry competitive structure Due to the competition in the energy drink market, Red Bull focuses on non-price competitive weapon like offering exhilarating events, high quality products and sponsorship. In contrast with other competitors Red Bull attract more costumers to its company by growing in 45%marketshare  [1]  . Accordingly Red Bull has a major influence on its competitors performance in the industry because Red Bull is one of the pioneers in energy drink industry and many companies try to obey and consider Red Bull as benchmark. Industry demand In the energy drink industry, because of the various proper advertisements to encourage people to use and drink energy drinks (giving the image that people can fly) the demand for drinks is increasing  [2]  . Thus, this is a good point for the company because there are lots of opportunities for every company to fill the current demand and rivalry tend to reduce in the industry, also there is space for everyone to jump in enter the industry (growing stage), and the profit of the company is going to increase which is a goal that every company is seeking it. Buyers Having strong and stable costumers are suppliers and producers concerns, producers like to have costumers with large quantity level of ordering and stable financial status basically in energy drink industry especially Red Bull costumers (buyers) are wholesalers and big retailers. These buyers buy the energy drinks through the company or its representatives, and resell them to supermarket, bars, restaurants and end users. Red Bull faces buyers with high level of bargaining power, and it is real risk for Red Bull. Main reasons for this high bargaining power of buyers in this case are; the switching costs in the energy drink industry are very low. So, Red Bull buyers can switch from Red Bull to other energy drink companies which produce it with lower prices without any difficulty. Also, in most cases energy drink buyers (retailers and wholesalers) purchase products in large quantities, and it is obvious that the more buying in quantity, the more bargaining power the buyer has. So they c an use their power to reduce the cost of energy drinks. Suppliers The bargaining power of suppliers is the same story like bargaining power of buyers but from other side. Red Bull company has both kind of suppliers as bargaining power, some very strong and others weak, so they can balance between them. For instance, the supplier of Glucuronolactone is Glaxo Smithkline Company. Red Bull energy drink buys their Glucurnopolacton inputs from this company. So the bargaining power of this supplier is very high on Red Bull. But the other ingredients are assembled from several small suppliers, and Red Bull has the bargaining power on them. Also, Red Bull has many channels and substitutes suppliers for its normal raw materials, so they can switch from any supplier to cheaper and more flexible one. Substitutes All producers always carry the concern of substitute products for their products and always looking for ways to protect and survive themselves from this phenomenon. Energy drink industry isnt an exception, so players in this industry always try to keep level of quality high, convenience price and other thing which may make costumers more satisfy. Coffee industry can be a threat for energy drinks because of the existing caffeine in coffee and it can be a powerful potential product substitute for energy drink. Therefore, Red bull must take care of its pricing strategy and product quality to keep its costumers and satisfy them more day by day which they were successful due to reports not only Red Bull could protect its products against other substitutes but also, they have increased in their market share in US market by 45%  [3]  . Industry Analysis and Peer Review Industry Characteristics Beverage industry is divided into many categories such as alcoholic vs. non alcoholic, (hard vs. soft drinks) and within soft drinks still there is other segmentation such as carbonated soft drink (CSD) and non carbonated soft drink. Carbonated Energy Drinks account for less than half of the total volume. This figure is heavily skewed however by the popularity of still brands in Asia (Canadean Press release) According to Beverage Digest, in 2004 the U.S. non-alcoholic refreshment market totaled 14 billion cases (192-oz). Carbonated soft drinks made up 73.1% of the total with non-carbonated products comprising 13.7% and packaged bottled water accounting for 13.2%. Americans spent roughly $92.9 billion annually on refreshment beverages.  [4]   Energy drink is a relatively new product introduced in 80s and has been growing noticeably with the market more than doubling in size since 1998 (Canadean Press release  [5]  ). The following chart is evidence of this inevitable growth and the attraction of this growth for drink manufacturer. The industry has been experiencing a significant growth and still growing at the speed that draws the big players in soft like Coca Cola drink to enter to this high margin business. Food and beverage market are critical enough that out of 100 new product development 90 NPD fails. The failure results from a poor interpretation of consumers trend and translation of those to opportunities  [6]  . Austrian company, Red Bull, as a pioneer trend settler has made its fortune from their unique strategies in advertising, marketing and other products characteristics such as Packaging, Flavor, color and Product claim. Global consumption According to Beverage digest report, Asia is the largest leading market in consumption of energy drinks followed by Western Europe and North America as the second and third markets. Asia has been loosing some of 20% of its market share is past 6 years. However, this decline has been offset by the second and third market mainly due to the steady growth in market of carbonated E.D in North America. North American market is now almost 40 times greater than it was in 1998 Peer Review In North America today more than 200 energy drinks existed in US. According to bevNET.com, after a rigorous marketing research the best energy drinks are AMP by Pepsi Cola, KMX Red by Coca-Cola Company Red Bull by Red Bull North America. Red Bulls market dominance seems assured. No other competitors have either the distribution channels or, more importantly, the posture of rebellious infamy to be considered real threats  [7]  . Year 2001, in UK energy drinks market 21 new drinks  [8]  have been introduced that would have force the red bull into a competition. However, red bull can still enjoy being a market leader. In the following table there are representations of top 14 non- alcoholic markets where some of them are in the specific market of the energy drinks. Coca-Cola (Juice, Soft Drinks, Water) ($21bn) Suntory (Water, Soft Drinks) ($4.4bn) Nestle (Coffee, Soft Drinks, Water) ($19bn) Starbucks (Coffee) ($4.0bn) PepsiCo (Juice, Soft Drinks, Water) ($10bn) Sara Lee (Coffee) ($2.7bn) Kraft Foods (Coffee, Powdered Drinks) ($4.6bn) Tchibo (Coffee) ($2.7bn) Unilever (Tea ) ($4.5bn) Red Bull (Energy Drinks) ($1.6bn) Cadbury Schweppes (Soft Drinks) ($4.5bn) Cott Corp (Juice, Soft Drinks) ($1.4bn) Danone (Soft Drinks, Water) ($4.5bn) Ocean Spray Source: http://www.mind-advertising.com/sectors/sector_softdrinks.htm Industry Life Cycle Energy drinks were originally pioneered by Asian companies, but they became popular in Europe the late 80s with the arrival of Red Bull  [9]  . There are more than 200 energy drinks existed in US market only and this figure is increasing due to the high margin of this business. In 2004, carbonated soft drinks posted the growth of 1% which is unlike its usual trend, case of growing 2% to 4%. Noticeably, this inevitable growth was driven by Diet and Energy drinks  [10]  . While other carbonated drinks posted volume change of one Digit, brands like Red Bull and Hansen Natural reported the 45% and 56% of positive volume change in 2004. The market, now estimated to be worth $10 million, has been predicted to grow to $300 million or even as much as $2 billion in the next few years.  [11]  Double digit growth in the market is the main factor contributing to Energy drinks life cycle in its embryonic phase (growth). Since the market is not old enough, the number of players are increasing and even the Coca Cola and Pepsi are the new entrant which add to the well-built assumption of embryonic phase. Brand loyalty and high expectations are still questionable in this stage and its because the consumers are still exposing to new products and new claims. Thus, players are fighting for product feature extension such as low-carbs and sugar free plus new products claims such as improve concentration, reaction time and endurance.  [12]   After introduction of Red Bull in late 80s, industry went to an introduction phase. By 1998, the size of the industry doubled and still growing with a fast pace following highlighted area in the graph is an approximate stage of the life cycle at the moment. Internal Analysis Value Chain Primary Activity: Inbound outbound logistics Logistical issues at Red Bull in of high importance. Due to the fact that all ingredients in the Red Bull drink is synthetically made by pharmaceutical companies, they make sure that their products are carefully handled to maintain the quality and avoid unnecessary costs. Red Bull always makes sure that they align with premium logistics provider to achieve their strategic goals. Red Bull aims to have web-based visibility on their supply chain, thus they base their logistical activities or selection on: Flexible warehouse network Transportation management capabilities Strong information technology offering With 1,600 employees working for Red Bull world wide (Gulf News, Red Bull plans to set up Dubai plant), Red Bull required those standards as they are experiencing year-after-year of high growth, which make the inventory forecasting and management challenging. That is why logistical issues have become increasingly important, and that is why they choose to outsource the logistics to companies that can comply with their network of multi-client warehouses needs (Red Bull OH Logistics). Interestingly, Red Bull uses small distributors in small regional markets, if those small distributors dont perform up to Red Bulls standards they establish a warehouse and push young people to stuff their vans with Red Bulls product and distribute it every where. This way, the small distributors generally break even within three months and are profitable within six (A Bulls Market The marketing of Red Bull Energy Drink). Primary Activity: Operations There is little information about the operations process of Red Bull. However we will enlighten you with the contents and brief information about the packaging company that Red Bull deals with. The great product which is provided by Red Bull one of its main elements of success. Known for improving performance, improving concentration and reaction speed, improving vigilance, improving emotional status and stimulating metabolism, Red Bulls secret is in its ingredients. The ingredients in each Red Bull drink (250ml) consist of: Taurine (1000mg) Glucuronolacton (600mg) Caffeine (80mg) Niacin (20mg) Vitamin B6 (5mg) Pantothenic Acid (5mg) Vitamin B12 (0.005mg) According to Red Bull, It is a combination of all the ingredients together, which result in Red Bulls benefits (Red Bull, Ingredients).. The packaging process of Red Bull is fully done in Austria. And the supplier of Red Bulls cans is Rexam, and they are considered to be the worlds largest provider of beverage cans. Rexam manufactures different types of cans for different industries, however almost half of their revenues come from Coca-Cola and Pepsi Cola. Moreover, industry estimates present that Rexam gained about $22 million from the sales of Red Bull cans (How Does Red Bull Package Its Product?). Primary Activity: Marketing and Sales: With the control of 70% of the à ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¤1.6 billion market (about à ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¤1.12 billion), Red Bull has achieved all of this through intensive unconventional marketing strategies. Targeting young people, mainly the Y-generation, Red Bull has utilized eccentric marketing tools that has extremely effective on the target market. The strategy of sponsoring local activities like the Red Bull music academy in the USA, parachuting in South Africa, Go-Karts in Kuwait, and many more in different countries has achieved its target of attracting its target market which gets excited when viewing such sports. Some of the strategies used for marketing Red Bull include: Using pick-up trucks as mobile displays, painted blue and silver with a giant can of the drink mounted on top of the vehicle. Designed to be eye-catching, these devices were aimed at promoting the red bull brand as youthful and slightly off-the-wall. Cans of the drink were also given out free to people on the street who had been identified as being in need of energy. Red Bull was given to club DJs, empty cans would also be left on tables in hot spots such as trendy bars, clubs and pubs. Secondary Activity: Technology The information about the technology that Red Bull uses was quite scares. However we could safely say that Red Bull little activity done on their RD side because Red Bull does enjoy any sort of economies of scale. Red Bull has only one main product, which is the Red Bull energy drink and recently they introduced the new Red Bull energy drink sugar-free. Hence, the main difference between the original Red Bull drink and the sugar-free drink is that it has 0g of sucrose and 0g of glucose, where the original product has 21.5g of sucrose and 5.25g of glucose. Moreover, each sugar-free drink has only 8 calories (EU)/ 10 calories (USA), yet it does not loose any of its energetic effects (Red Bull, Ingredients). Secondary Activity: Human Recourse Red Bull is famous for practicing what they preach, especially when it comes to recruitment. Due to the fact that Red Bull promotes their product as a Hip and young product, they make sure to recruit staffs that are young, in touch with youth culture, dynamic and innovative. For example, they achieve that by recruiting university students as student brand managers to promote its product among young student groups (What Sort of People Work For Red Bull?). However their recruiting does not happen by Red Bull themselves, but they makes sure that it is implemented by all of the outsourced activities. However, it is known that most of Red Bulls 1,600 employees are marketing experts and are the real movers of the Red Bull drink (Marketing Eye, Red Bull Car). Group Customers and Market Segmentation As it is known any successful company should have a certain customer group. The customers that were targeted by Red Bull were the ones that were looking for excitement, alertness, and concentration depending on the age, status, and lifestyle. Four consumer categories were Red Bulls target under the age of 16-30: students, club people, sport people, and employees. College students were the main target of Red Bull. Since college students look for something that would enhance their concentration on doing their assignments and projects, and staying overnight for studying for exams then Red Bull is the best solution for them. It would improve their concentration in their studying Moreover; Red Bull has used this group to enhance their promotion. According to Biz/ed, throw parties those students were emboldened to market the product in the campuses of the universities as what they call them student brand managers. Those students collect the information and make a report of a market data research to the company. Depending on that strategy and the youth generation (high school and colleges students), Red Bull was able to spread the reputation and the popularity of the drink and concentrating on supplying the product rather than applying the traditional marketing ways of promotion (A Look at a Key Feature of Red Bulls Business). The second category of Red Bull customers are the night club people, since the drink has some substances that would increase the persons emotional status. Moreover, Red Bull is offered in the nightclubs depending on the cultural background. For example, nightclubs in Dubai offer Red Bull for the people who do not drink alcohol like the Muslims, which made it a major substitute for alcohol to that group. However, Red Bull is still individually mixed with alcohol to create both the Red Bull highness and the alcohol sensation. Furthermore, Red Bull has also made music events for those groups of customers like the Red Bull Music Academy in 2005 in Seattle, Washington in the United States. (Red Bull Music Academy 2005) For the physical exertion that the drink offers, Red Bull has also promoted the product for the sport people. Among those people, there are the athletes, the racing drivers, the airborne-sport people, water-sport people, the bikers, the skateboarders, and the skiers. Red Bull highly endorsed this group with many sport festivals, and one of the famous one among those is the Red Bull Dolomite Man that took place in Austria in 2005. (Red Bull Dolomite Man) Red Bulls minor groups are the white-collar and the blue-collar workers. Red Bull can support white-collar workers to concentrate more on the job to improve their performance, and it would also help them stay overnight if he or she needed. The drink would also allow the blue-collar workers to work extra hours with out the feeling of exhaustions for the physical exertion that the drink provides. However, Red Bull did not concentrate on this group, so there were no special efforts directed towards them. Within the four groups, there a considerable amount of customers who look for diet product. For that category, Red Bull produced the sugar-free Red Bull to combine the diet customers with rest of the customers that are within the four groups. Business Level and Generic Strategy In the generic strategy Red Bull there are two views, there is a generic strategy from energy drink market perspective, and there is a generic strategy from soft drink market perspective. From the energy drink market perspective, since Red Bull has few economies of scope, the strategy adopted by Red Bull to follow is differentiation. The price of the drink is about 5Dhs in the UAE, which shows the clear differentiation of the product, especially in a market where every body is competing on the same customer segment. According to Biz/ed, Red Bull was able to build a strong brand image through: using Red Bull cars that had big cans on them, giving free cans to people, and providing Red Bull cans to club DJs (A Look at a Key Feature of Red Bulls Business). This strategy made Red Bull to be the market leader of 70% market in the energy drink market. From the soft drink market industry wide perspective Red Bull applies the Focused-differentiation generic strategy. Red Bull has a very good brand image in terms of soft drinks industry. The drink can only maintain this image through focus-

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Inclusion of Special Needs Students

Inclusion of Special Needs Students This chapter focuses on the special educational need, behavioural, emotional and social difficulties (BESD). It explores the in inclusion of children with this special educational need in mainstream schools, as well as the implications for teachers in the classroom. It also highlights the support and strategies that literature details need to be in place in order for these children to learn effectively in the mainstream classroom. In todays modern world, all children no matter their ethnicity, disability or ability matter. They are seen as unique individuals, each with the right to a broad, enjoyable and inclusive education. Every child has the right to be included in classroom learning and given ample opportunities to learn to their potential. In regard to education, Inclusion is about the quality of childrens experiences, how they are helped to learn, achieve and participate fully in the life of the school. There can be some confusion between the words inclusion and integration. They may have similar spellings, but this is where the similarity ends, as there meanings are very different. Inclusion in terms of education, sees children working alongside each other, sharing experiences, with learning personalised where necessary to enable all children to achieve. Integration on the other hand sees all children together in the classroom, learning exactly the same thing. Children with special educational needs (SEN) have not always been given the option of mainstream schooling. In the past, children who are now referred to as having SEN were labelled with more derogatory terms such as handicapped and retarded. In the 1940s children with SEN, including those with physical and mental disabilities were educated away from mainstream schools, being taught instead in hospitals or institutions. During this time the government and educators favoured the word segregation rather than inclusion. This is highlighted in the Education Act 1944 which details, A local education authority shall, in particular, have regard to the need for securing that provision is made for pupils who suffer from any disability of mind or body by providing, either in special schools or otherwise, special educational treatment, that is to say, education by special methods appropriate for persons suffering from that disability. (Chapter 31: 5) Nonetheless the 1970s was the decade for change, and this was set in motion by MP Margaret Thatcher who commissioned a report to review the educational provision in England, Scotland and Wales for children and young people handicapped by disabilities of body or mind, taking account of the medical aspects of their needs, together with arrangements to prepare them for entry into employment. (The Warnock Report 1978: 1) The report was published in 1978, namely The Warnock Report, which changed the landscape of inclusive education. The word inclusion exploded into mainstream schools, and children with SEN were given the right to learn alongside other children. Within the report, the aim of inclusion for SEN children in mainstream schools was highlighted along with the need for provisions to be put in place to make it possible. The report stated Full-time education in an ordinary class should be the aim for many children with special educational needs. It should be possible to achieve this aim in the case of the majority of children with mild learning difficulties, many of whom are at present the concern of remedial services, provided that adequate support is available from teachers with additional training or expertise in special education. (The Warnock Report 1978: 102) Thirty years on from the original Warnock report, many were beginning to wonder whether inclusion of children with SEN into mainstream schools had been effective. An OFSTED report on inclusion (2004) seemed to be rather sceptical of its success. It detailed that the inclusion of children with SEN was taking place in mainstream schools, but at the detriment to childrens learning. It also mentioned how the curriculum was not being adapted to meet the provisions of children with SEN and offer them suitable opportunities to improve key skills. (Special Educational Needs and Disability, 2004: 5) It was seen that the Government had gone too far when it came to inclusion, and were including almost all children with SEN into mainstream, closing special schools to save on costs. OFSTED commented how when inspecting schools they had observed work being explained effectively to pupils, but pupils with SEN depended on teaching assistants to break the tasks down further so that they could participate.(2004: 16) This is something that Warnock (2005) cited in a House of Commons Education and Skills Committee report (2006) draws attention to when she notes how children with SEN, are being taught almost entirely by teaching assistants who are not fully qualified teachers, while non-disabled students are taught by the teacher. Parents were questioning more and more, whether their child with SEN was learning to their potential in schools, and asking why their child was not being supported by the teacher as much as the other children in the classroom. Baroness Warnocks change of heart regarding her original vision of inclusion for all children in mainstream schools was made apparent to all when she declared, I think its plain now that the notion of inclusion of all children in the same school isà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ actually not working in a very large number of cases. (Warnock, 2006) It would appear from this statement that Warnock had conceded that despite the best intentions to include children with SEN into mainstream schools, schools had actually integrated children rather than included them. SEN children were almost been forced into mainstream classrooms, having to cope with the learning that has taken place, rarely having their learning personalised to meet their educational needs. Dimbleby (2006) really encapsulates in a debate on inclusion the issues of including children with SEN in the classroom. He states Children with special needs have always posed a core dilemma. On the one hand, can we afford to include them in mainstream education no matter what the cost or upheaval involved? On the other, can we afford not to include them for fear of condemning millions to a life as second class citizen? From this small introductory speech the issues that educators and governments face are highlighted. The monetary cost, as well as a childs right to be educated with other children no matter what their ability or disability. Within the debate Warnock mentions how her original 1978 report failed to recognise the variety of special educational needs, instead putting them all under one banner and treating all children the same. Warnock also speaks of her realisation that certain children, especially those with behavioural, emotional and social difficulties (BESD) would benefit from special school teaching and learning. She notes that children with BESD could be educationally intelligent, but have certain difficulties preventing them from achieving to their potential. Warnock also admits that these children would be better of out of mainstream schools, and given the specialist teacher support that will help them achieve. Six years on from Warnocks change of heart, there are now many more government reports debating inclusion, and questioning where children with SEN should or could be taught. Parental choice is now taken into account when deciding where children with SEN should be taught, with parent being given the opportunity to state where they would prefer their child to be educated. The vision of many is to allow children with SEN to be taught in a school that is going to meet their individual needs. Gove and Teather (2011: 17) refer to this in the Green paper and propose that they will remove the bias towards inclusion and propose to strengthen parental choice by improving the range and diversity of schools from which parents can choose, making sure they are aware of the options available to them and by changing statutory guidance for local authorities. From just exploring a brief history of inclusion, it is clear that there are many opinions as to whether or not the inclusion of children with BESD into mainstream schools has been successful and effective. BESD is a complex special educational need, far more unpredictable than any other. The challenge for educators in the twenty first century in terms of managing the issue of pupils who exhibit difficulties with social, emotional and behavioural aspects of their lives is the tension between the twin issues of incidence and time to deal with incidence. (McNamara, 2006: 24) This statement portrays the challenges teachers face in the classroom when dealing with BESD. Children with BESD have the capability to be disruptive and dangerous in the classroom, and teachers face the challenge of managing these behaviours, ensuring at the same time every child in the classroom is learning to their potential in a safe environment. There are some who believe that because of these challenges, children with BESD would be better of learning in special schools, giving them access to more specialised teaching and more one to one support. Conversely, there are people who believe that children with BESD should be taught in mainstream, despite the challenges posed to teachers. To able to fully understand what stance to take, it is essential to explore what BESD and its presence in the classrooms of today. Behavioural, Emotional and Social Difficulties (BESD) Behavioural, Emotional and Social Difficulties (BESD) is a special educational need that affects many children in the UK. These children have behavioural problems, as well as emotional needs, and find it difficult to interact in social situations. In short, children with BESD find it hard to access certain areas of the curriculum in order to achieve to their potential. Broadly, it is that behaviour, emotions and social development all influence learning and access to learning. Difficulties with behaviour, emotions and social development can all inhibit learning and access to learning. In the current jargon, they can form barriers to learning.(Farrell 2006:6) Children with BESD do not fall under any one specific stereotype. It does not matter what a childs ability is, they can still have BESD, varying from mild to severe. Those children with mild difficulties may lack social skills and therefore struggle with group interactions, especially in learning situations. East and Evans (2006: 15) detail how At the milder end of the continuum, pupils have problems with social interaction and find it difficult to work with others. Children with severe difficulties may be physically and verbally aggressive, especially towards teachers and peers. They are unable to work in social situations as they have little or no concentration and communication skills. Children with BESD can also find it difficult to cope with changes in routine, which in relation to classroom life, can be a frequent occurrence. Children are usually recognised as having BESD when they portray a range of behaviours which: Is not age appropriate Results in isolation from peers Negatively affects the classroom/learning environment Places unreasonable demands on teaching staff Leads to negative self concept and low self-esteem Restricts learning opportunities Creates dangerous situations. (Evans, 2007: no page) The behaviours identified by Evans encompass the spectrum of behaviours, from mild to severe, that a child with BESD can portray. As already discussed, a child of any ability can have BESD, which is also true for a child of any age. From past school experiences, two children in two separate schools had typical characteristics of children with BESD. One child was in year 6, and the other in year 1, with the later showing all of the above characteristics most of the time. In todays classrooms, there are a rather high number of children that have the special education needs known as BESD. The Green Paper (2010: 20) mentions the number of pupils with behavioural, emotional and social difficulties has increased by 23 per cent between 2005 and 2010 to 158,000 pupils. These figures emphasise that over a five year period, there has been approximately an additional 29,545 children recognised as having BESD. Through looking further into the statistical data available surrounding BESD, there have been an number of interesting findings. From the statistical data, it is clear that there is one gender more common to having BESD. 26,170 (17.2 per cent of) boys with statements had behavioural, emotional and social difficulties, compared to 3,590 (6.2 per cent of) girls. (DfE Special Needs Analysis 2010:12) This data, which focused on children aged 4 18, shows there is a remarkably high difference between the two genders with boys seven times more likely to have BESD. Brown and Schoon (2010: 167-168), mention in their research of the behaviour of children aged 7 that the proportion of boys classified as showing serious behaviour problems was around twice that of girls (10% compared with 5%). Although completely different pieces of research, the overwhelming difference between gender and behaviour is apparent. It is also interesting to note the percentage of children with BESD in primary and secondary school. The DfE Special Needs Analysis (2010: 18) recorded that 12% of statemented children in primary school, and 18% of children in secondary school had BESD and mentioned Behaviour, emotional and social difficulties was the most prevalent type of need for pupils between the ages of 11 and 15 years. It is very interesting to note that the findings from DfE Special Needs Analysis (2010: 6) also highlighted that statemented children with BESD were more likely to be eligible for free school meals. The question asked must be whether environmental factors such as socioeconomic class have an impact on childrens behaviour. Washbrook (2010: 1) refers to the possible connection between social class and childrens behaviour and details that behaviour problems are much more common among disadvantaged children prior to the start of schooling, and these differentials change little between the ages of 3 and 7. Ethnicity was also identified as an additional factor, with the most likely ethnicity of a child with BESD recorded in various research as being Afro-Caribbean. Brown and Schoon (2010: 168) in their extensive research specified how the greatest proportion with particularly high scores was found amongst Black Caribbean children; 13 per cent were classified as having serious behavioural problems. The DfE Special Needs Analysis (2010: 20) also recorded similar findings, mentioning how Black and mixed race pupils at school action plus were most likely to have behavioural, emotional and social difficulties. It is important to note that the data researched was based on children who were on School action plus, an extra support service offered on top of other support from external sources. It does not mean that children on school action plus are the only children that have BESD. There are many other children in mainstream schools who have not been, or are waiting to be statemented who do have BESD, and have not been included in published research statistics. However, exploring the data that have been published, the most common factors of BESD are: Male gender Afro-Caribbean Low Socioeconomic class It is essential to remember that there are other children not statemented and therefore not recorded in some statistical data that may have BESD in schools. It is important to stress the importance of not stereotypically judging a childs special education need. Just because they may not fall in line with the common factors mentioned above, does not mean they do not have BESD, equally a child who meets all these criteria may not have BESD. Disadvantages and Advantages of Mainstream Schooling There seems to be many opinions as to whether or not children with BESD should be taught in mainstream classrooms. Some believe it is beneficial to the child with BESD, others believe it to be disadvantageous for the other children in the classroom, as they will be distracted from learning. Sommefeldt (2006: 96) researched teachers views on inclusion of children with BESD. One such view focused on a negative aspect and detailed inclusion was Detrimental to all both those with needs (lack of specialized / individual help and attention) and those without (left to cope alone with the curriculum because the teachers attention is focused on [special] needs) It is apparent from this statement, that having a child with BESD in the classroom demands much of the teachers time, and their attention will be focused on one specific child a lot of the time. Evans (2007: 56) mentions how there is also a concern about the detrimental effect on the learning of other pupils in the class. With teachers time and attention being focused on a child with BESD, it can be the case that the other children are left to manage on their own, or continue working through the potential distractions, both of which could potentially have damaging effects on their education. East and Evans (2006: 15) speak of how difficult it can be for a teacher to manage both a whole class, and a child with BESD when they note, Children considered to have behavioural, emotional and social difficulties often present a far greater challenge than pupils with other kinds of special needs. This quote reiterates what has been previously mentioned regarding the complexity of BESD, and how it is special educational need that can be very difficult for a teacher to manage, due to the challenge of never knowing how a child is going to act or react in the classroom. Focusing on the impact mainstream education could have on a child with BESD, some believe they would not get the specialist, small group support they need in order to achieve in school. OFSTED (2006: 3) in their key findings cite an important reason for why some pupils with BESD do not achieve in mainstream and detail how pupils in mainstream schools where support from teaching assistants was the main type of provision were less likely to make good academic progress than those who had access to specialist teaching in those schools. It is inevitable that at times during the day, teachers will look to teaching assistants to support certain childrens learning, especially if a child with BESD is in the classroom. However, TAs are not qualified teachers, so some argue they do not offer children with behavioural difficulties enough teaching and learning support in order for them to achieve. The occasional overuse of TAs to support children with BESD is referred to by Blatchford, Russell, Bassett, Brown and Martin (2004: 20) in their research which mentions how There is something paradoxical about the least qualified staff in schools being left to teach the most educationally needy pupils. This may form part of the reason for why some parents opt to send their children to special schools, as they believe their child will receive the best support to help them develop in their thinking. Obviously there are disadvantages of including a child with BESD into mainstream teaching, both for the child and for their peers. However, it cannot be denied that there are similarly many positives that come from including children with BESD in the mainstream classroom. Sommefeldts research (2006: 96) does not only focus on the negatives of mainstream inclusion. Many positives of mainstream education for children with BESD are also expressed. One teacher gave a personal opinion and stated It is my philosophy that all pupils should have an equal opportunity to access the mainstream curriculum. Children with BESD can be taught in special schools, but they also have the right to be taught in mainstream classrooms as well. As already mentioned, there are some that believe these children should be taught in special schools. These children may however be educationally able and therefore thrive from learning with other children that are of a similar ability. Fogell and Long (1997: 85) bring to light a potential negative sending a child with BESD to special school may have as they question the possible impact of placing a child with emotional and behavioural difficulties alongside a number of other children with exactly the same difficulties. This encompasses two advantages of mainstream schools, one from the educational ability aspect, and the other from the social aspect. Within the primary classroom, children with BESD can socialise with peers who do not have special educational needs, and who model various positive behaviours which can be observe on a daily basis by a child with BESD. In special schools, children with BESD usually interact with those with similar difficulties to them, and therefore lack the positive peer behaviour models a mainstream classroom can offer. Another advantage of including children with BESD in mainstream classrooms is allowing normal children the opportunity to interact with and understand those with special educational needs. By teaching children about differences, and giving them the chance to learn with children that have special educational needs, they can develop an understanding, compassion and tolerance for those who they may not necessarily have met outside the classroom environment. Khalsa and Miyake (2005: 8) note the benefit of children forming an understanding of special needs when they state, The inclusive classroom welcomes diversity and the wide range of student needs that accompany students differences. Teachers who help children understand and discuss differences help create an educational environment that supports empathy for all individuals. There are a number of advantages and disadvantages to mainstream inclusion, however if a child with BESD is taught in a mainstream school, then it is essential that the school does everything possible to allow them to flourish in a happy, inclusive environment. A Schools Role Mainstream schools who offer classroom places for children with special needs, including children with BESD, must have an understanding of what inclusion is. This understanding must be shown through the way the school is run. Schools should not look to change the children with special education needs, but instead look to change the school to become inclusive for all. This is referred to by McLeskey and Waldron (2000: 40) when they comment that, One of the most important issues to keep in mind when developing an inclusive school is that these programs should address the need to provide a better education for all students in a school. In order for children with BESD to achieve effectively in mainstream classrooms, schools must bare in mind a number of factors including: Individualised Education Program (IEP) Teacher Support / Training Personalised Learning Every Child Matters (ECM) A child with special educational needs should have an IEP, which will detail what support the child is going to receive for that specific educational year. Schools must put these in place to ensure the parent(s) and teachers know the support that will be offered to the child, whether that be through one to one sessions with special teachers, or personalised support within the classroom. All staff working with a child with special educational needs must be given access to their IEP allowing them to understand the support and strategies in place, so they could in turn offer effective teaching and continuity for the child. Wilmshurst and Brue (2010: 211) detail the importance of an IEP and mention, The IEP spells out the types of services, their frequency and duration, and the setting in which they will be provided, all of which are very important information for the service providers. Schools must therefore appreciate the importance of IEPs and do everything they can to create ones which are personalised for each child with special educational needs which is going to help them achieve to their potential. The creation of IEPs requires a great time commitment, which Twachtman-Cullen and Twachtman-Bassett (2011: 69) mention, Unfortunately, many professionals find data collection, and all that it entails, formidable. After all, in this busy world of ours data collection involves, paper-work, analysis, and interpretation all of which are time consuming. However, if a school wants to include children with SEN into classroom teaching and learning effectively, then this process needs to be undertaken in a slow, concise, professional manner. Schools must ensure that teachers are given support in order for them to effectively include and teach children with BESD in the mainstream classroom. The White Paper (2010: 32) recognised Only around half of teachers believed that there was appropriate support available in their school for teachers struggling to manage pupil behaviour. This, along with other reports, recognise and emphasise the importance of giving teachers extra training to ensure that they understand different behaviours and have the capacity to deal with them in the classroom environment. One form of support offered to teachers could be in the form of training and insets, giving them a greater insight into the strategies that could be initiated in the classroom to deal with children who have BESD. OFSTED (2005: 12) detailed the importance of staff understanding, and how Regular training that links classroom practice to an understanding of how children develop socially and emotionally is central to the effective understanding and management of behaviour. Another form of support schools might offer teachers could be giving them the opportunity to liase with teachers from special schools who have first hand experience of teaching children with BESD. These specialised teachers can offer advice, share strategies, and help ensure that the inclusion of a child with BESD in the classroom is positive and effective for their learning. Senco Penny Rice (2006) visited a special school to observe strategies used to deal with BESD and gain advice from teachers, which she could take back to her school and implement into the relevant classrooms. In her description of the day she highlighted the positives of visiting the special school environment when she stated I found todays experience very useful for my own personal practice, exciting, because I could see childrens behaviour being turned round even just in one day, erm, and I could see childrens confidence being raised, and that is very, very, very, important. Schools should give all staff, especially their SENCOs this opportunity, to improve their understanding of BESD, and keep up to date with current support strategies, because teachers with BESD children in their classroom usually rely on their SENCO for support and advise. There are many strategies that teachers could use to help include children with BESD in classroom learning. One of the most obvious strategies is to make sure that children with BESD have been set work and tasks, which are achievable. This means that they are kept on task rather than losing concentration because they do not understand or are finding something difficult. Another important strategy is positive reinforcement and reward of good behaviour, rather than only sanctioning bad behaviour. The way a child is rewarded will depend on the child and how the child responds to rewards. Howarth and Fisher (2005: 42) point out how rewards can vary and how some will accept individually tailored reward systems while others will respond more positively to class and school based systems. The essential thing to remember is that rewards support and reinforce pupils learning. A strategy which if effectively implemented could be very beneficial is a target behaviour chart. Teachers could set children with BESD targets and if they succeed, they could be given a reward. However, the child would need to be able to achieve these targets otherwise they could become despondent having tried and failed to achieve. The chart would be very visual and would allow the child to see what they had achieved, and have a sense of pride. Another possible strategy to control the behaviour of a child with BESD is time out. This method affords the teacher time to gain control of the situation, gives the child time to reflect on why they behaved in the way they did and what they could do next time to stop it from happening. Rogers (2003: 106) describes how many infant and middle primary teachers have in-class time-out options to give the offending student cool-off time and thinking time. By giving children with behavioural difficulties these opportunities to reflect, it allows the situations to become less heated, and for a new start to take place once they recognise what they did wrong. Any schools main aim should be to help children to develop, learn and achieve. Children with special educational needs including, those with BESD, may need their learning to be personalised so that they can concentrate on areas of the curriculum they struggle with. This will allow them to learn more effectively, rather than being exposed to in learning that they find difficult to access and understand. Cheminais (2007: 71) affirms this when she notes how providing personalised services and tailored education, will ensure that every child and young person, regardless of their background, reaches their optimum potential and experiences improved life chances. It is important for schools to remember, that although some children pose many more challenges then others, every child in their school matters. The government released a document detailing the fact that every child has the right to a safe and effective education.Every Child Matters is about improving the life chances of all young people, from birth to 19, reducing inequalities and helping them to achieve better outcomes. (Cheminais, 2010: 3) If schools keep this in mind, then all children, not only those with special educational needs, will have a well rounded, happy education. There are many challenges that schools face when including children with behavioural, emotional and social difficulties. However, if they stick to their beliefs, implement strategies, support teachers, and work together with outside assistance, the inclusion of these children can be successful. Conclusion It is difficult to conclude on whether children with BESD should be taught in mainstream classrooms, because of the range of views found when researching. There are many who believe children with BESD should be taught in special schools, so that they can achieve educationally with specialised support, and so the other children in the classroom are not disrupted in their learning. They believe the impact of including a child with BESD in the classroom would be too much for a teacher to deal with, and would be damaging for other childrens education. However, there are people who think children with BESD should be taught in mainstream classrooms, and given the opportunity to learn alongside other children who may not have special educational needs. By being included in mainstream learning, they are developing their social skills and getting an equal opportunity to learn to their potential. One thing is for certain; the inclusion of a child with BESD is not a quick and simple task. If sc hools are going to include children with BESD, they must have an understanding of this special education need, and have the correct classroom strategies in place. There ne